UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly Resolution
PREAMBLE:Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in harbors acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people.
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law.
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations.
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human right, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedom.
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedom is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY PROCLAIMS:
This universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society keeping this declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching a defendant education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
ARTICLE 1 : All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed withy reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
ARTICLE 2 : Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
ARTICLE 3 : Everyone has the right of life, liberty and security of person.
ARTICLE 4 : No one shall be held in slavery or servitude, slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
ARTICLE 5 : No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
ARTICLE 6 : Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
ARTICLE 7 : All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation o0f this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
ARTICLE 8 : Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights grated him by Constitution or by law.
ARTICLE 9 : No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
ARTICLE 10 : Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
ARTICLE 11 : Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
ARTICLE 12 : No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence nor to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
ARTICLE 13 : Everyone has the right to freedom of mo0vement and residence within the borders of each State.
Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own and to return to his country.
ARTICLE 14 : Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
ARTICLE 15 : 1. Everyone has the right to a nationality.
2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
ARTICLE 16 : Men and women of full age without limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
ARTICLE 17 : 1. Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
ARTICLE 18 : Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom either alone or in community with others and in public or private to manifest his religion or belief in teaching practice, worship and observance.
ARTICLE 19 : Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
ARTICLE 20 : Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.