Transfer of Property Act – CHAPTER II
OF TRANSFERS OF PROPERTY BY ACT OF PARTIES
(A) Transfer of Property, whether moveable or immoveable
5. “Transfer of property” defined.
In the following sections “transfer of property” means an act by which a living person conveys property, in present or in future, to one or more other living persons, or to himself, 4*[or to himself] and one or more other living persons; and “to transfer property” is to perform such act.
4*[In this section “living person” includes a company or association or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, but nothing herein contained shall affect any law for the time being in force relating to transfer of property to or by companies, associations or bodies of individuals.
1. Added by Act 3 of 1885, s. 3.
2. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 5, for “1877”.
3. Nothing in Chapter II is to be deemed to affect any rule of Muhammadan Law–see section 2, supra.
4. Ins. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 6.
What may be transferred
6. Property of any kind may be transferred, except as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force.
(a) The chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, the chance of a relation obtaining a legacy on the death of a kinsman, or any other mere possibility of a like nature, cannot be transferred.
(b) A mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be transferred to any one except the owner of the property affected thereby.
(c) An easement cannot be transferred apart from the dominant heritage.
(d) An interest in property restricted in its enjoyment to the owner personally cannot be transferred by him.
(dd) A right to future maintenance, in whatsoever manner arising, secured or determined, cannot be transferred.]
(e) A mere right to sue 2*** cannot be transferred.
(f) A public office cannot be transferred, nor can the salary of a public officer, whether before or after it has become payable.
(g) Stipends allowed to military 3*[,naval], 4*[air-force] and civil pensioners of 5*[Government] and political pensions cannot be transferred.
(h) No transfer can be made (1) in so far as it is opposed to the nature of the interest affected thereby, or (2) 6*[for an unlawful object or consideration within the meaning of section 23 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872),] or (3) to a person legally disqualified to be transferee.
(i) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorize a tenant having an un-transferable right of occupancy, the farmer of an estate in respect of which default has been made in paying revenue, or the lessee of an estate under the management of a Court of Wards, to assign his interest as such tenant, farmer or lessee.
1. Ins. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 6.
2. The words “for compensation for a fraud or for harm illegally caused”, omitted by Act 2 of 1900, s. 3.
3. Ins. by Act 35 of 1934, s. 2 and Sch.
4. Ins. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and Sch. I.
5. The word “Government” successively subs. by the A. O. 1937 and the A. O. 1950 to read as above.
6. Subs. by Act 2 of 1900, s. 3, for “for an illegal purpose”.
7. Added by Act 3 of 1885, s. 4.
7. Persons competent to transfer.
Every person competent to contract and entitled to transferable property, or authorized to dispose of transferable property not his own, is competent to transfer such property either wholly or in part, and either absolutely or conditionally, in the circumstances, to the extent and in the manner, allowed and prescribed by any law for the time being in force.
8. Operation of transfer
Unless a different intention is expressed or necessarily implied, a transfer of property passes forthwith to the transferee all the interest which the transferor is then capable of passing in the property, and in the legal incidents thereof.
Such incidents include, where the property is land, the easements annexed thereto, the rents and profits thereof accruing after the transfer, and all things attached to the earth;
and, where the property is machinery attached to the earth, the moveable parts thereof;
and, where the property is a house, the easements annexed thereto, the rent thereof accruing after the transfer, and the locks, keys, bars, doors, windows, and all other things provided for permanent use therewith;
and, where the property is a debt or other actionable claim, the securities therefore (except where they are also for other debts or claims not transferred to the transferee), but not arrears of interest accrued before the transfer;
and, where the property is money or other property yielding income, the interest or income thereof accruing after the transfer takes effect.
9. Oral transfer.
A transfer of property may be made without writing in every case in which a writing is not expressly required by law.
10. Condition restraining alienation.
Where property is transferred subject to a condition or limitation absolutely the transferee or any person claiming under him from parting with or disposing of his interest in the property, the condition or limitation is void, except in the case of a lease where the condition is for the benefit of the lessor or those claiming under him: provided that property may be transferred to or for the benefit of a woman (not being a Hindu, Muhammadan or Buddhist), so that she shall not have power during her marriage to transfer or charge the same or her beneficial interest therein.
11. Restriction repugnant to interest created.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created absolutely in favour of any person, but the terms of the transfer direct that such interest shall be applied or enjoyed by him in a particular manner, he shall be entitled to receive and dispose of such interest as if there were no such direction.
1*[Where any such direction has been made in respect of one piece of immoveable property for the purpose of securing the beneficial enjoyment of another piece of such property, nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect any right which the transferor may have to enforce such direction or any remedy which he may have in respect of a breach thereof.]
12. Condition making interest determinable on insolvency or attempted alienation.
Where property is transferred subject to a condition or limitation making any interest therein, reserved or given to or for the benefit of any person, to cease on his becoming insolvent or endeavoring to transfer or dispose of the same, such condition or limitation is void.
Nothing in this section applies to a condition in a lease for the benefit of the lessor or those claiming under him.
13. Transfer for benefit of unborn person.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created for the benefit of a person not in existence at the date of the transfer, subject to a prior interest created by the same transfer, the interest created for the benefit of such person shall not take effect, unless it extends to the whole of the remaining interest of the transferor in the property.
A transfers property of which he is the owner to B in trust for A and his intended wife successively for their lives, and, after the death of the survivor, for the eldest son of the intended marriage for life, and after his death for A’s second son. The interest so created for the benefit of the eldest son does not take effect, because it does not extend to the whole of A’s remaining interest in the property.
14. Rule against perpetuity.
No transfer of property can operate to create an interest which is to take effect after the life-time of one or more persons living at the date of such transfer, and the minority of some person who shall be in existence at the expiration of that period, and to whom, if he attains full age, the interest created is to belong.
1. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 8, for the original paragraph.
15. Transfer to class some of whom come under sections 13 and 14.
If, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created for the benefit of a class of persons with regard to some of whom such interest fails by reason of any of the rules contained in sections 13 and 14, such interest fails 1*[in regard to those persons only and not in regard to the whole class.
16. Transfer to take effect on failure of prior interest.
Where, by reason of any of the rules contained in sections 13 and 14, an interest created for the benefit of a person or of a class of persons fails in regard to such person or the whole of such class, any interest created in the same transaction and intended to take effect after or upon failure of such prior interest also fails.
Direction for accumulation
17. (1) Where the terms of a transfer of property direct that the income arising from the property shall be accumulated either wholly or in part during a period longer than
(a) the life of the transferor, or
(b) a period of eighteen years from the date of the transfer, such direction shall, save as hereinafter provided, be void to the extent to which the period during which the accumulation is directed exceeds the longer of the aforesaid periods, and at the end of such last-mentioned period the property and the income thereof shall be disposed of as if the period during which the accumulation has been directed to be made had elapsed.
(2) This section shall not affect any direction for accumulation for the purpose of €“
(i) the payment of the debts of the transferor or any other person taking any interest under the transfer, or
(ii) the provision of portions for children or remoter issue of the transferor or of any other person taking any interest under the transfer, or
(iii) the preservation or maintenance of the property transferred; and such direction may be made accordingly.
18. Transfer in perpetuity for benefit of public.
The restrictions in sections 14, 16 and 17 shall not apply in the case of a transfer of property for the benefit of the public in the advancement of religion, knowledge, commerce, health, safety, or any other object beneficial to mankind.
1. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 9, for “as regards the whole class”.
2. Subs. by s. 10, ibid., for the original sections 16 to 18.
19. Vested interest.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of a person without specifying the time when it is to take effect, or in terms specifying that it is to take effect forthwith or on the happening of an event which must happen, such interest is vested, unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the transfer.
A vested interest is not defeated by the death of the transferee before he obtains possession.
Explanation.– An intention that an interest shall not be vested is not to be inferred merely from a provision whereby the enjoyment thereof is postponed, or whereby a prior interest in the same property is given or reserved to some other person, or whereby income arising from the property is directed to be accumulated until the time of enjoyment arrives, or from a provision that if a particular event shall happen the interest shall pass to another person.
20. When unborn person acquires vested interest on transfer for his benefit.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created for the benefit of a person not then living, he acquires upon his birth, unless a contrary intention appear from the terms of the transfer, a vested interest, although he may not be entitled to the enjoyment thereof immediately on his birth.
21. Contingent interest
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of a person to take effect only on the happening of a specified uncertain event, or if a specified uncertain event shall not happen, such person thereby acquires a contingent interest in the property. Such interest becomes a vested interest, in the former case, on the happening of the event, in the latter, when the happening of the event becomes impossible.
Exception.–Where, under a transfer of property, a person becomes entitled to an interest therein upon attaining a particular age, and the transferor also gives to him absolutely the income to arise from such interest before he reaches that age, or directs the income or so much thereof as may be necessary to be applied for his benefit, such interest is not contingent.
22. Transfer to members of a class who attain a particular age.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of such members only of a class as shall attain a particular age, such interest does not vest in any member of the class who has not attained that age.
23. Transfer contingent on happening of specified uncertain event.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is to accrue to a specified person if a specified uncertain event shall happen, and no time is mentioned for the occurrence of that event, the interest fails unless such event happens before, or at the same time as, the intermediate or precedent interest ceases of exist.
24. Transfer to such of certain persons as survive at some period not specified.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is to accrue to such of certain persons as shall be surviving at some period, but the exact period is not specified, the interest shall go to such of them as shall be alive when the intermediate or precedent interest ceases to exist, unless a contrary intention appears from the terms of the transfer.
A transfers property to B for life, and after his death to C and D, equally to be divided between them, or to the survivor of them. C dies during the life of B. D survives B. At B’s death the property passes to D.
25. Conditional transfer.
An interest created on a transfer of property and dependent upon a condition fails if the fulfillment of the condition is impossible, or is forbidden by law, or is of such a nature that, if permitted, it would defeat the provisions of any law, or is fraudulent, or involves or implies injury to the person or property of another, or the Court regards it as immoral or opposed to public policy.
(a) A lets a farm to B on condition that he shall walk a hundred miles in an hour. The lease is void.
(b) A gives Rs. 500 to B on condition that he shall marry A’s daughter C. At the date of the transfer C was dead. The transfer is void.
(c) A transfers Rs. 500 to B on condition that she shall murder C. The transfer is void.
(d) A transfers Rs. 500 to his niece C if she will desert her husband. The transfer is void.
26. Fulfillment of condition precedent.
Where the terms of a transfer of property impose a condition to be fulfilled before a person can take an interest in the property, the condition shall be deemed to have been fulfilled if it has been substantially complied with.
(a) A transfers Rs.5,000 to B on condition that he shall marry with the consent of C, D and E. E dies. B marries with the consent of C and D. B is deemed to have fulfilled the condition.
(b) A transfers Rs.5,000 to B on condition that he shall marry with the consent of C, D and E. B marries without the consent of C, D and E, but obtains their consent after the marriage. B has not fulfilled the condition.
27. Conditional transfer to one person coupled with transfer to another on failure of prior disposition.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created in favour of one person, and by the same transaction an ulterior disposition of the same interest is made in favour of another, if the prior disposition under the transfer shall fail, the ulterior disposition shall take effect upon the failure of the prior disposition, although the failure may not have occurred in the manner contemplated by the transferor.
But, where the intention of the parties to the transaction is that the ulterior disposition shall take effect only in the event of the prior disposition failing in a particular manner, the ulterior disposition shall not take effect unless the prior disposition fails in that manner.
(a) A transfers Rs. 500 to B on condition that he shall execute a certain lease within three months after A’s death, and, if he should neglect to do so, to C. B dies in A’s life-time. The disposition in favour of C takes effect.
(b) A transfers property to his wife; but, in case she should die in his life-time, transfers to B that which he had transferred to her. A and his wife perish together, under circumstances which make it impossible to prove that she died before him. The disposition in favour of B does not take effect.
28. Ulterior transfer conditional on happening or not happening of specified event.
On a transfer of property an interest therein may be created to accrue to any person with the condition superadded that in case a specified uncertain event shall happen such interest shall pass to another person, or that in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen such interest shall pass to another person. In each case the dispositions are subject to the rules contained in sections 10, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 27.
29. Fulfillment of condition subsequent.
An ulterior disposition of the kind contemplated by the last preceding section cannot take effect unless the condition is strictly fulfilled.
A transfers Rs. 500 to B, to be paid to him on his attaining his majority or marrying, with a proviso that, if B dies a minor or marries without C’s consent, the Rs. 500 shall go to D. B marries when only 17 years of age, without C’s consent. The transfer to D takes effect.
30. Prior disposition not affected by invalidity of ulterior disposition.
If the ulterior disposition is not valid, the prior disposition is not affected by it.
A transfers a farm to B for her life, and, if she do not desert her husband, to C. B is entitled to the farm during her life as if no condition had been inserted.
31. Condition that transfer shall cease to have effect in case specified uncertain event happens or does not happen.
Subject to the provisions of section 12, on a transfer of property an interest therein may be created with the condition superadded that it shall cease to exist in case a specified uncertain event shall happen, or in case a specified uncertain event shall not happen.
(a) A transfers a farm to B for his life, with a proviso that, in case B cuts down a certain wood, the transfer shall cease to have any effect. B cuts down the wood. He loses his life-interest in the farm.
(b) A transfers a farm to B, provided that, if B shall not go to England within three years after the date of the transfer, his interest in the farm shall cease. B does not go to England within the term prescribed. His interest in the farm ceases.
32. Such condition must not be invalid.
In order that a condition that an interest shall cease to exist may be valid, it is necessary that the event to which it relates be one which could legally constitute the condition of the creation of an interest.
33. Transfer conditional on performance of act, no time being specified for performance.
Where, on a transfer of property, an interest therein is created subject to a condition that the person taking it shall perform a certain act, but no time is specified for the performance of the act, the condition is broken when he renders impossible, permanently or for an indefinite period, the performance of the act.
34. Transfer conditional on performance of act, time being specified.
Where an act is to be performed by a person either as a condition to be fulfilled before an interest created on a transfer of property is enjoyed by him, or as a condition on the non-fulfilment of which the interest is to pass from him to another person, and a time is specified for the performance of the act, if such performance within the specified time is prevented by the fraud of a person who would be directly benefited by non-fulfilment of the condition, such further time shall as against him be allowed for performing the act as shall be requisite to make up for the delay caused by such fraud. But if no time is specified for the performance of the act, then, if its performance is by the fraud of a person interested in the non-fulfilment of the condition rendered impossible or indefinitely postponed, the condition shall as against him be deemed to have been fulfilled.
35. Election when necessary.
Where a person professes to transfer property which he has no right to transfer, and as part of the same transaction confers any benefit on the owner of the property, such owner must elect either to confirm such transfer or to dissent from it; and in the latter case he shall relinquish the benefit so conferred, and the benefit so relinquished shall revert to the transferor or his representative as if it had not been disposed of, subject nevertheless, where the transfer is gratuitous, and the transferor has, before the election, died or otherwise become incapable of making a fresh transfer,
and in all cases where the transfer is for consideration, to the charge of making good to the disappointed transferee the amount or value of the property attempted to be transferred to him.
The farm of Sultanpur is the property of C and worth Rs. 800. A by an instrument of gift professes to transfer it to B, giving by the same instrument Rs. 1,000 to C. C elects to retain the farm. He forfeits the gift of Rs. 1,000.
In the same case, A dies before the election. His representative must out of the Rs. 1,000 pay Rs. 800 to B.
The rule in the first paragraph of this section applies whether the transferor does or does not believe that which he professes to transfer to be his own.
A person taking no benefit directly under a transaction, but deriving a benefit under it indirectly, need not elect.
A person who in his one capacity takes a benefit under the transaction may in another dissent there from.
Exception to the last preceding four rules.–Where a particular benefit is expressed to be conferred on the owner of the property which the transferor professes to transfer, and such benefit is expressed to be in lieu of that property, if such owner claim the property, he must relinquish the particular benefit, but he is not bound to relinquish any other benefit conferred upon him by the same transaction.
Acceptance of the benefit by the person on whom it is conferred constitutes an election by him to confirm the transfer, if he is aware of his duty to elect and of those circumstances which would influence the judgment of a reasonable man in making an election, or if he waives enquiry into the circumstances.
Such knowledge or waiver shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be presumed, if the person on whom the benefit has been conferred has enjoyed it for two years without doing any act to express dissent.
Such knowledge of waiver may be inferred from any act of his which renders it impossible to place the persons interested in the property professed to be transferred in the same condition as if such act had not been done.
A transfers to B an estate to which C is entitled, and as part of the same transaction gives C a coal-mine. C takes possession of the mine and exhausts it. He has thereby confirmed the transfer of the estate to B.
If he does not within one year after the date of the transfer signify to the transferor or his representatives his intention to confirm or to dissent from the transfer, the transferor or his representative may, upon the expiration of that period, require him to make his election; and, if he does not comply with such requisition within a reasonable time after he has received it, he shall be deemed to have elected to confirm the transfer.
In case of disability, the election shall be postponed until the disability ceases, or until the election is made by some competent authority.
36. Apportionment of periodical payments determination of interest of person entitled.
In the absence of a contract or local usage to the contrary, all rents, annuities, pensions, dividends and other periodical payments in the nature of income shall, upon the transfer of the interest of the person entitled to receive such payments, be deemed, as between the transferor and the transferee, to accrue due from day to day, and to be apportionable accordingly, but to be payable on the days appointed for the payment thereof.
37. Apportionment of benefit of obligation on severance.
When, in consequence of a transfer, property is divided and held in several shares, and thereupon the benefit of any obligation relating to the property as a whole passes from one to several owners of the property, the corresponding duty shall, in the absence of a contract to the contrary amongst the owners, be performed in favour of each of such owners in proportion to the value of his share in the property, provided that the duty can be severed and that the severance does not substantially increase the burden of the obligation; but if the duty cannot be severed, or if the severance would substantially increase the burden of the obligation, the duty shall be performed for the benefit of such one of the several owners as they shall jointly designate for that purpose:
Provided that no person on whom the burden of the obligation lies shall be answerable for failure to discharge it in manner provided by this section, unless and until he has had reasonable notice of the severance.
Nothing in this section applies to leases for agricultural purposes unless and until the State Government by notification in the Official Gazette so directs.
(a) A sells to B, C and D a house situate in a village and leased to E at an annual rent of Rs. 30 and delivery of one fat sheep, B having provided half the purchase-money and C and D one-quarter each. E, having notice of this, must pay Rs. 15 to B, Rs. 7 1/2 to C, and Rs. 7 1/2 to D, and must deliver the sheep according to the joint direction of B, C and D.
(b) In the same case, each house in the village being bound to provide ten days’ labour each year on a dyke to prevent inundation, E had agreed as a term of his lease to perform this work for A. B, C and D severally require E to perform the ten days’ work due on account of the house of each. E is not bound to do more than ten days’ work in all, according to such directions as B, C and D may join in giving.
Transfer of Immoveable Property
38. Transfer by person authorised only under certain circumstances to transfer.
Where any person, authorized only under circumstances in their nature variable to dispose of immoveable property, transfers such property for consideration, alleging the existence of such circumstances, they shall, as between the transferee on the one part and the transferor and other persons (if any) affected by the transfer on the other part, be deemed to have existed, if the transferee, after using reasonable care to ascertain the existence of such circumstances, has acted in good faith.
A, a Hindu widow, whose husband has left collateral heirs, alleging that the property held by her as such is insufficient for her maintenance, agrees, for purposes neither religious nor charitable, to sell a field, part of such property, to B. B satisfies himself by reasonable enquiry that the income of the property is insufficient for A’s maintenance, and that the sale of the field is necessary, and acting in good faith, buys the field from A. As between B on the one part and A and the collateral heirs on the other part, a necessity for the sale shall be deemed to have existed.
39. Transfer where third person is entitled to maintenance.
Where a third person has a right to receive maintenance, or a provision for advancement or marriage, from the profits of immoveable property, and such property is transferred 1***, the right may be enforced against the transferee, if he has notice 2*[thereof] or if the transfer is gratuitous; but not against a transferee for consideration and without notice of the right, nor against such property in his hands.
40. Burden of obligation imposing restriction on use of land
Where, for the more beneficial enjoyment of his own immoveable property, a third person has, independently of any interest in the immoveable property of another or of any easement thereon, a right to restrain the enjoyment 4*[in a particular manner of the latter property], or
or of obligation annexed to ownership but not amounting to interest or easement.- where a third person is entitled to the benefit of an obligation arising out of contract and annexed to the ownership of immoveable property, but not amounting to an interest therein or easement thereon,
such right or obligation may be enforced against a transferee with notice thereof or a gratuitous transferee of the property affected thereby, but not against a transferee for consideration and without notice of the right or obligation, nor against such property in his hands.
A contracts to sell Sultanpur to B. While the contract is still in force he sells Sultanpur to C, who has notice of the contract. B may enforce the contract against C to the same extent as against A.
41. Transfer by ostensible owner.
Where, with the consent, express or implied, of the persons interested in immoveable property, a person is the ostensible owner of such property and transfers the same for consideration, the transfer shall not be voidable on the ground that the transferor was not authorized to make it: provided that the transferee, after taking reasonable care to ascertain that the transferor had power to make the transfer, has acted in good faith.
1. The words “with the intention of defeating such right” omitted by Act 20 of 1929, s. 11.
2. Subs. by s. 11, ibid., for “of such intention”.
3. The illustration omitted by s. 11, ibid.
4. Subs. by s. 12, ibid., for “of the latter property or to compel its enjoyment in a particular manner”.
42. Transfer by person having authority to revoke former transfer.
Where a person transfers any immoveable property, reserving power to revoke the transfer, and subsequently transfers the property for consideration to another transferee, such transfer operates in favour of such transferee (subject to any condition attached to the exercise of the power) as a revocation of the former transfer to the extent of the power.
A lets a house to B, and reserves power to revoke the lease if, in the opinion of a specified surveyor, B should make a use of it detrimental to its value. Afterwards A, thinking that such a use has been made, lets the house to C. This operates as a revocation of B’s lease subject to the opinion of the surveyor as to B’s use of the house having been detrimental to its value.
43. Transfer by unauthorized person who subsequently acquires interest in property transferred.
Where a person 1*[fraudulently or] erroneously represents that he is authorized to transfer certain immovable property, and professes to transfer such property for consideration, such transfer shall, at the option of the transferee, operate on any interest which the transferor may acquire in such property at any time during which the contract of transfer subsists.
Nothing in this section shall impair the right of transferees in good faith for consideration without notice of the existence of the said option.
A, a Hindu who has separated from his father B, sells to C three fields, X, Y and Z, representing that A is authorized to transfer the same. Of these fields Z does not belong to A, it having been retained by B on the partition; but on B’s dying A as heir obtains Z. C, not having rescinded the contract of sale, may require A to deliver Z to him.
44.Transfer by one co-owner
Where one of two or more co-owners of immoveable property legally competent in that behalf transfers his share of such property or any interest therein, the transferee acquires, as to such share or interest, and so far as is necessary to give effect to the transfer, the transferor’s right to joint possession or other common or part enjoyment of the property, and to enforce a partition of the same, but subject to the conditions and liabilities affecting, at the date of the transfer, the share or interest so transferred.
Where the transferee of a share of a dwelling-house belonging to an undivided family is not a member of the family, nothing in this section shall be deemed to entitle him to joint possession or other common or part enjoyment of the house.
1. Ins. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 13.
45. Joint transfer for consideration.
Where immoveable property is transferred for consideration to two or more persons, and such consideration is paid out of a fund belonging to them in common, they are, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, respectively entitled to interests in such property identical, as nearly as may be, with the interests to which they were respectively entitled in the fund; and, where such consideration is paid out of separate funds belonging to them respectively, they are, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, respectively entitled to interests in such property in proportion to the shares of the consideration which they respectively advanced.
In the absence of evidence as to the interests in the fund to which they were respectively entitled, or as to the shares which they respectively advanced, such persons shall be presumed to be equally interested in the property.
46. Transfer for consideration by persons having distinct interests.
Where immoveable property is transferred for consideration by persons having distinct interests therein, the transferors are, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, entitled to share in the consideration equally, where their interest in the property were of equal value, and, where such interests were of unequal value, proportionately to the value of their respective interests.
(a) A, owing a moiety, and B and C, each a quarter share, of mauza Sultanpur, exchange an eighth share of that mauza for a quarter share of mauza Lalpura. There being no agreement to the contrary, A is entitled to an eighth share in Lalpura, and B and C each to a sixteenth share in that mauza.
(b) A, being entitled to a life-interest in mauza Atrali and B and C to the reversion, sell the mauza for Rs. 1,000. A’s life-interest is ascertained to be worth Rs. 600, the reversion Rs. 400. A is entitled to receive Rs. 600 out of the purchase-money. B and C to receive Rs. 400.
47. Transfer by co-owners of share in common property.
Where several co-owners of immoveable property transfer a share therein without specifying that the transfer is to take effect on any particular share or shares of the transferors, the transfer, as among such transferors, takes effect on such shares equally where the shares were equal, and, where they were unequal, proportionately to the extent of such shares.
A, the owner of an eight-anna share, and B and C, each the owner of a four-anna share, in mauza Sultanpur, transfer a two-anna share in the mauza to D, without specifying from which of their several shares the transfer is made. To give effect to the transfer one-anna share is taken from the share of A, and half-an-anna share from each of the shares of B and C.
48. Priority of rights created by transfer.
Where a person purports to create by transfer at different times rights in or over the same immoveable property, and such rights cannot all exist or be exercised to their full extent together, each later created right shall, in the absence of a special contract or reservation binding the earlier transferees, be subject to the rights previously created.
49. Transferee’s right under policy.
Where immoveable property is transferred for consideration, and such property or any part thereof is at the date of the transfer insured against loss or damage by fire, the transferee, in case of such loss or damage, may, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, require any money which the transferor actually receives under the policy, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to be applied in reinstating the property.
Rent bona fide paid to holder under defective title
50. No person shall be chargeable with any rents or profits of any immoveable property, which he has in good faith paid or delivered to any person of whom he in good faith held such property, notwithstanding it may afterwards appear that the person to whom such payment or delivery was made had no right to receive such rents or profits.
A lets a field to B at a rent of Rs. 50, and then transfers the field to C. B, having no notice of the transfer, in good faith pays the rent to A. B is not chargeable with the rent so paid.
51. Improvements made by bona fide holders under defective titles.
When the transferee of immoveable property makes any improvement on the property, believing in good faith that he is absolutely entitled thereto, and he is subsequently evicted there from by any person having a better title, the transferee has a right to require the person causing the eviction either to have the value of the improvement estimated and paid or secured to the transferee, or to sell his interest in the property to the transferee at the then market-value thereof, irrespective of the value of such improvement.
The amount to be paid or secured in respect of such improvement shall be the estimated value thereof at the time of the eviction.
When, under the circumstances aforesaid, the transferee has planted or sown on the property crops which are growing when he is evicted there from, he is entitled to such crops and to free ingress and egress to gather and carry them.
52. Transfer of property pending suit relating thereto.
During the 1*[pendency] in any Court having authority 2*[3*[within the limits of India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir] or established beyond such limits] by 4*[the Central Government 5***], of 6*[any] suit or proceeding 7*[which is not collusive and] in which any right to immoveable property is directly and specifically in question, the property cannot be transferred or otherwise dealt with by any party to the suit or proceeding so as to affect the rights of any other party thereto under any decree or order which may be made therein, except under the authority of the Court and on such terms as it may impose.
7*[Explanation.–For the purposes of this section, the pendency of a suit or proceeding shall be deemed to commence from the date of the presentation of the plaint or the institution of the proceeding in a Court of competent jurisdiction, and to continue until the suit or proceeding has been disposed of by a final decree or order, and complete satisfaction or discharge of such decree or order has been obtained, or has become unobtainable by reason of the expiration of any period of limitation prescribed for the execution thereof by any law for the time being in force.]
53. Fraudulent transfer.
(1) Every transfer of immoveable property made with intent to defeat or delay the creditors of the transferor shall be voidable at the option of any creditor so defeated or delayed.
Nothing in this sub-section shall impair the rights of a transferee in good faith and for consideration.
Nothing in this sub-section shall affect any law for the time being in force relating to insolvency.
A suit instituted by a creditor (which term includes a decree-holder whether he has or has not applied for execution of his decree) to avoid a transfer on the ground that it has been made with intent to defeat or delay the creditors of the transferor, shall be instituted on behalf of, or for the benefit of, all the creditors.
1. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 14, for “active prosecution”.
2. Subs. by the A. O. 1950, for “in the Provinces or established beyond the limits of the Provinces”.
3. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for “within the limits of Part A States and Part C States” (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
4. Subs. by the A. O. 1937, for “the G. G. in C.”
5. The words “or the Crown Representative” rep. by the A. O. 1948.
6. Subs. by Act 20 of 1929, s. 14, for “a contentious”.
7. Ins. by s. 14, ibid.
8. Subs. by s. 15, ibid., for the original section.
(2) Every transfer of immoveable property made without consideration with intent to defraud a subsequent transferee shall be voidable at the option of such transferee.
For the purposes of this sub-section, no transfer made without consideration shall be deemed to have been made with intent to defraud by reason only that a subsequent transfer for consideration was made.]
53A. Part performance.
Where any person contracts to transfer for consideration any immoveable property by writing signed by him or on his behalf from which the terms necessary to constitute the transfer can be ascertained with reasonable certainty, and the transferee has, in part performance of the contract, taken possession of the property or any part thereof, or the transferee, being already in possession, continues in possession in part performance of the contract and has done some act in furtherance of the contract, and the transferee has performed or is willing to perform his part of the contract,
then, notwithstanding that the contract, though required to be registered, has not been registered, or, where there is an instrument of transfer, that the transfer has not been completed in the manner prescribed therefore by the law for the time being in force, the transferor or any person claiming under him shall be debarred from enforcing against the transferee and persons claiming under him any right in respect of the property of which the transferee has taken or continued in possession, other than a right expressly provided by the terms of the contract:
Provided that nothing in this section shall affect the rights of a transferee for consideration who has no notice of the contract or of the part performance thereof.]