B. Upadhaya, J.
1. This is a judgment-debtor's appeal arising out of execution proceedings. The decree to he executed was one for costs passed by the High Court in a Civil Revision. The objection taken by the judgment-debtor was that the court of the Munsif bad no jurisdiction to execute the decree, in view of the provisions of Section 38 of the Code of Civil Procedure. The objection was overruled by the executing court and the decision was affirmed in appeal. Learned Counsel has referred me to the provisions of Sections 38 and 37 of the Code of Civil Procedure and relies on a decision of the Calcutta High Court in Durga Charan Banerjee v. Smt. Benodini Devi reported in : AIR1944Cal301 .
2. Section 38 of the Code of Civil Procedure reads as follows :
'38. A decree may be executed either by the court which passed it or by the court to which it is sent for execution.'
In the preceding Section 37 the expression 'Court which passed a decree' has been explained as follows:
'37. The expression 'Court which passed a decree' or words to that effect shall, in relation to the execution of decrees, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context, be deemed to include :
(a) Where the decree to be executed has been passed in the exercise of appellate jurisdiction, a court of first instance, and
(b) Where the court of first instance has ceased co- exist or to have jurisdiction to execute it, the court which, if the suit wherein the decree was passed was instituted at the time of making the application for the execution of the decree, would have jurisdiction to try such suit.'
3. Learned Counsel contends that according to Section 38 the decree could be executed only by the High Court which has passed the decree in the Civil revision which the High Court decided. Section 37, it is contended, would not be of any helpbecause the expression 'Court which passed the decree' could mean the court of first instance only if the decree had been passed by the High Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction in an appeal.
It therefore becomes necessary to ascertain' the exact import of the words 'appellate jurisdiction.' Ordinarily, the distinction between an appeal and a revision is well known, and if the High Court' hears an appeal it exercises its appellate jurisdiction and if it hears a revision it exercises its revisional jurisdiction. If appellate jurisdiction be considered to have this restricted meaning in Section 37 of the Code of Civil Procedure, it will have to be held that, while a decree passed by the High Court in an appeal can be executed by the court of first instance, a decree passed by the High Court in a Civil revision cannot be executed by the trial Court.
Learned Counsel could not give any reason for such a difference in procedure being provided in the two cases. Appellate jurisdiction, however, does appear to have a more comprehensive meaning in Section 37. In the Oxford Dictionary one of the meanings of an 'appeal' is transference of a case from an inferior to a higher court of tribunal in the hope of reversing or modifying the decision of the former. 'The court of appeal' has been mentioned in that Dictionary as 'a court occupied in rehearing cases previously tried in inferior courts.'
As a verb, one of the meanings given to the word 'appeal' is, to call to a higher Judge or tribunal for deliverance from the adverse decision of a lower; to remove a case formally from an inferior to a higher court.'
4. In the chapter relating to County Courts in England Halsbury in Vol.. 8, p. 376, quotes Order 29, Rule 3 which reads as follows :
'The term 'appeals' includes every appeal, motion or application to set aside or vary any verdict or judgment in or of any county court, or for a new trial in an action in the High Court remitted to such county court for trial or otherwise.'
This meaning of the word 'appeals' adopted in the County Court Rules in England is in consonance with the dictionary meaning of that word.
5. In Wharton's Law Laxicon an appeal is : 'The removal of a cause from an inferior to a superior court for the purpose of testing the soundness of the decision of the inferior court. 'Appellate jurisdiction' means the power of a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court.' Story in his commentaries on the Constitution of the United States Vol. II p. 508 (article 1761) discusses the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and says :
'The essential criteria of appellate jurisdiction is that it revises and corrects the proceedings in a cause already instituted and does not create that cause. In reference to judicial tribunals, an appellate jurisdiction, therefore, necessarily implies that the subsequent matter has been already instituted in and acted upon by some other court whose judgment or proceedings are to be revised. 'Appellate jurisdiction' may be exercised in a variety of forms and indeed in any form in which the legislature may choose to prescribe but still the substance must exist before the form can be applied to it.'
6. The words 'Appellate Jurisdiction,' therefore appear to have a wide manning and are comprehensive enough to include revisional jurisdiction. Learned Counsel invited my attention to a decision of a learned single Judge of the Calcutta High Court in Durga Charan Banerji's case (A) mentioned above. That was a case in which the decree soughtto be executed in the court of the Subordinate Judge at Alipore had been passed by the High Court of Calcutta on an application for leave to appeal to the Privy Council, and was a decree for costs.
That was not a case where the decree for costs had been passed by the court in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction at all and the learned Judge, if I may say so with great respect, correctly took the view that the decree could not be executed in the court of the Subordinate Judge at Alipore. The decision in that case, however affords no help in disposing of the question raised in this appeal.
A case more helpful is one decided by the Madras High Court in Chappan v. Moidin Kutti reported in ILR 22 Mad 68 (B), where the meaning of the expression 'appellate jurisdiction' came up for consideration before a Full Bench. Subramania Aiyar J. took the view that the expression 'appellate jurisdiction' has a comprehensive meaning so as to include the powers to hear and decide a revision.
7. I am, therefore, of opinion that the view taken by the courts below is correct and that the learned Munsif did have the jurisdiction to execute the decree passed by this Court in a revision.
8. The appeal fails and is dismissed withcosts.