R.M. Sahai, J.
1. An important question regarding applicability of Section 10 of the Uttar Pradesh Act 24 of 1971 (The Uttar Pradesh High School and Intermediate Colleges (Payment of Salaries of Teachers and other Employees) Act 1971) as amended by U. P. Act 26 of 1975 (hereinafter referred as the Act) to an institution upgraded as High School from Junior High School arises in this petition, filed by teacher and employees of a Higher Secondary School at Allahabad. The controversy centres round the meaning of the words 'institution' and 'maintenance grant' as defined in the Act.
2. Before considering the impact of submissions made at the Bar we may point out that a scrutiny of the various provisions of the Act clearly brings out it to be a beneficent legislation aimed at protecting the teachers and employees of the Government aided institutions which had in course of time deteriorated and acquired the notoriety of drifting from the philanthropic objective of education to concentration on exploitation of helpless teachers and employees who had to choose between starvation and exploitation. Section 3 (1) ensures payment of salary by twentieth of each month. Section 3 (3) empowers District Inspector of Schools to make payment in default. Section 5 lays down the procedure for deposit of money by the management in a Scheduled Bank to be operated jointly by the representative of the management and the Inspector. Section 6 deals with enforcement of the provisions and directions by the Inspector. And the most vital provision is contained in Section 10, which makes State Government liable for payment of salary of teachers and employees of every institution due in respect of any period after 31st March 1971. By forcing the management to deposit a minimum of eighty percent of fees realised from students and making State Govt. liable for payment of salaries the Act has, on the one hand safeguarded against the unscrupulous tendency, if any, of the management and, on the other hand saved the teachers from plight of being exposed to exploitation. Such a legislation has to be interpreted liberally and its provisions have to be construed in favour of the subject for whose protection it is enacted.
3. Admittedly Lau Kush Higher Secondary School was a Junior High School (Class VIth to VIIIth), till 1966. It was accorded recognition by the Boardin 1967 under Section 7 (4) of U. P. Intermediate Education Act, (hereinafter referred as U. P. 1 Act). The effect of the recognition was that the Junior High School became Higher Secondary School and a recognised institution within the meaning of Section 2 (b) of the U. P. 1 Act.
4. As the affairs of the School were not in proper state an authorised Controller was appointed in 1971. A dispute arose in 1974 regarding payment of salary which, according to petitioners, was settled after the teachers and employees resorted to hunger strike. The dispute, again arose in 1976 when the Authorised Controller expressed his inability as the institution was not on grants-in-aid list.
5. The petitioners therefore invoked the extraordinary jurisdiction of this Court under Article 226 of the Constitution of India and have sought a Mandamus against the respondents viz. State of U. P. Director of Education, District Inspector of Schools and Authorised Controller to pay their salaries for different periods between June 76 and October 77. The respondents' contest is founded on the allegation that 'payment of maintenance grant to the institution by the State Government commenced when it was Junior High School. The same continued even after the Junior High School was raised to the status of High School; but maintenance grant to the High School, as such, was never paid by the State Government to the institutions receiving maintenance grant for the first time before 1st Feb., 1978, on which date the institution was brought on the list of institutions.'
6. The question at the outset, therefore, is the effect of recognition by the Board. Did the institution become one or it continued to be a Junior High School and High School either in fact or in law? A Higher Secondary School as defined in sub-paragraph (xxvi) of para. 1 of the Education Code means, 'a school which with or without lower classes maintains classes IX and X/or XI and XII and prepares students for the High School and/or Intermediate Examinations of the Intermediate Board or a University'. A High School, therefore, where education is imparted from VI to X is a Higher Secondary School. The effect of recognition by the Board of a Junior High School as High School is that it ceases to be a Junior High School, and comes within the purview of U. P. Intermediate Act.Education in a Junior High School used to be governed by different rules contained in Education Code. It was usually under local bodies. In 1972 the State Legislature passed U. P. Basic Education Act, 1972 (hereinafter referred to as Act 34 of 1972), providing for the establishment of a Board of Basic Education and for matters connected therewith, Section 2 (b) of the Act defines Basic Education as under:
'Section 2 (b)-- 'basic education' means education up to the eighth class imparted in schools other than High Schools or Intermediate Colleges and the expression 'basic schools' shall be construed accordingly.'
The words in Schools other than High Schools and Intermediate College are clear and unambiguous. The basic education means imparting of education up to VII class in a school other than High School. In other words if education is imparted from Classes VI to VIII in a High School it shall not be governed by the Basic Education Act, The matter has been put beyond any controversy by framing of regulation four of Chap. II in July 1976 under Section 15 of U. P. I Act, It has made explicit what was otherwise implicit but clear, Regulation 4 reads as under :
'Where any Junior High School is recognised as a High School under Section 7, a permanent or temporary teacher of such school, possessing the minimum qualifications under Regulation 1, shall be deemed to be permanent or temporary teacher, as the case may be, of such High School provided that the services of a temporary teacher who is not selected for appointment in accordance with the provisions of the Act and the regulations shall be dispensed with after giving him one month's notice in that behalf or one month's pay in lieu of such notice.
Explanation.-- Nothing in this regulation shall be construed to mean that High School includes classes 1 to V.'
The teachers, therefore, working in a Junior High School become teachers of High School after its recognition. They do not continue as teachers of Basic School. It is incongruous to suggest that an institution after its recognition comprises of two parts Junior High School and High School. In law it cannot, What cannot exist in law cannot be accepted to exist in fact.
7. The learned Chief Standing Counsel relied on Commissioner, LucknowDivision v. Ku. Prem Lata Misra (AIR 1977 SC 334) and urged that the Supreme Court has settled the controversy, by holding, that the basic section of a School cannot be part of a recognised institution. From the facts mentioned in the judgment it appears that the College started with Classes VI to XII but later on Classes I to V were opened i.e. Primary or Junior Basic Sections, The respondent of that case appears to have been appointed in the Basic Section, namely, as a teacher in the primary section. The question was whether her services were governed by provisions contained in U. P. Intermediate Act, It was found that the basic section having been opened subsequently and it being not an integral part of the College the teacher was not governed by the provisions of U. P. Intermediate Education Act. The reason for the decision was the averment in the counter-affidavit filed on behalf of the College that :
'The College is running the basic education independently and is neither registered by the Government or affiliated to any local body and neither any grant-in-aid is being taken by the Department to run the section accordingly. The College has its own rules and regulations to conduct the basic education.'
The facts of the case were peculiar and the decision cannot be an authority for the proposition that in every case where an institution is a Higher Secondary School it should be split up in two parts, the basic and the Higher Secondary.
8. The petitioners were, therefore, teachers and employees of an institution which was recognised by the Board. For the applicability of Section 10 it has further to be seen whether the institution was receiving maintenance grant. It is not denied that the maintenance grant which was being paid to Junior High School was continued to be paid even after it was recognised as High School. According to the learned Chief Standing Counsel the maintenance grant was paid to the Junior High School and not to recognised institution, within the meaning of Section 2 (b) of the Act read with Section 2 (c) of the Act, as such the petitioners were not entitled to claim benefit of Section 10 (1) of the Act. He maintains that as the High School section did not come on the grants-in-aid list the continued payment of the maintenance grant cannot be deemed to be payment of maintenance grant to High Schooland the petitioners were not entitled to the Mandamus claimed by them.
9. The argument is not convincing. It is in complete disregard of various Statutes dealing with the problem of education in the State.
10. There are no provisions dealing with maintenance grant. In pursuance of Section 15 (1) of U. P. I Act empowering the Board to frame regulations, rules regarding grants-in-aid to recognised institutions have been framed and are contained in Chapter X. Sub-rule (4) of the Chapter X of the Regulations provides that provisions of the Educational Code, Uttar Pradesh, with regard to grants-in-aid shall apply to all institutions recognised by the Board, so far as they are not inconsistent with the regulations. Chapter IX of the Education Code lays down the conditions and the nature of different grants to which an institution might be entitled. Chapter X of the Code deals with grants-in-aid to local bodies towards the total expenditure incurred by them on education ;
1. Senior Basic (Junior High) School for boys;
2. Junior Basic (Primary) Schools and
3. Senior Basic (Junior High) School for girls (Chapter X paragraph 324 of Education Code).
The rules for grant-in-aid for recognised institution and to local bodies establish that the nature and procedure of two grants are different. The same has been maintained in U. P. I Act and Act 34 of 1972.
11. The maintenance grant paid by the State Government after 1967 could not be to Junior High School. It was grant-in-aid to High School. The mere fact that the institution was not brought on the list of grants-in-aid did not, in our opinion, make any difference. As seen earlier, after the recognition of the Junior High School as High School it became a Higher Secondary School imparting education in lower classes also and its teachers and employees ceased to be teachers and employees of Junior High School. It is difficult to agree that the nature of the grant remained the same. In our opinion the grant paid by the State Government was grant to a recognised institution irrespective of the fact whether it was brought on the grant-in-aid list or not. The quantum of amount may vary due to increase in responsibilities but payment at same amountto a Higher Secondary School which was being paid to Junior High School does not in any manner affect the legal position that it is a grant to a recognised institution,
12. If the argument of Chief Standing Counsel that as maintenance grant was being paid to Junior High School the teacher and employees of the Higher Secondary School were not receiving any maintenance grant in respect of their employment is accepted it shall bring an anomalous result. On the one hand the institution ceases to be a Junior High School and becomes High School subject to the provisions of U. P. I Act and beyond the purview of U. P. Act 34 of 1972, yet for purposes of the Act it continues to be Junior High School although it is a recognised institution receiving maintenance grant. The argument is in teeth of clear provisions of the Act. The two definitions of 'Institution' and 'Maintenance Grant' have to be understood and interpreted in the background of the legislation and the objective it sought to attain. The Act has avoided use of any expression such as basic or secondary school. The benefit is extended to every teacher and employee of an institution recognised by the Board,
Even if the title of the Act is taken into consideration a High School or Intermediate College cannot be equated with IXth, Xth and XIth and XIIth only. That would be too narrow a construction. It clearly means the entire institution which is High School or Intermediate. It is not the case of the respondents that the teachers and employees for Classes VI to VIII are different than those for High School. It is common knowledge that the same set of teachers usually educate students both in lower classes i.e. VI to VIII and IXth and Xth. Similarly no school maintains separate employees for VI to VIII and IX to X. (The case of Primary section is entirely different). In these circumstances maintenance grant paid to the School cannot be bifurcated and it cannot be treated as maintenance grant in respect of teachers and employees of the Junior High School. Whatever ambiguity might have been there but after enactment of the U. P. Basic Education Act it is apparent that institutions imparting education up to VIIIth class are different from institutions imparting education up to Xth or XIIth class. They are governed by different enactments. It would be contrary to the Acts and Regulations tosuggest that the provisions of U. P. Basic Education Act apply up to Class VIIIth and U. P. Intermediate Education Act to Classes IX to XII. It is unworkable and too artificial to be accepted. The provisions are clear that so long as institution imparts education up to VI to VIIIth Class it is governed by U. P. Basic Education Act but once it is recognised by Board it comes within the purview of U. P. Intermediate Education Act and ceases to be governed by the former Act. Its teachers and employees become teachers and employees of High School, and the maintenance grant paid by the State Government is towards employment of teachers and employees of a recognised institution.
13. The learned Chief Standing Counsel placed reliance on an unreported Division Bench decision of this court in Civil Misc. Writ Petition No. 172-A of 1977, Mahanand Singh v. State decided on 28-3-1978. In this case the institution no doubt was a Junior High School and was accorded recognition in 1972 but its maintenance grant for Junior High School was suspended by the State Government. The Division Bench found:
'there is no dispute that in the instant case the institution is not receiving any maintenance grant from the State Government.'
In that case the institution although recognised was not receiving any maintenance grant for the time being by the State Government, as such, the teachers and employees were rightly held not entitled to any relief. The facts of Mahanand's case were, thus, entirely different from the facts of the present case. On the finding that the College was receiving any maintenance grant either for Junior High School or for College the other question regarding the effect of payment of maintenance grant to Junior High School was academic.
14. For the reasons stated above we are of the opinion that maintenance grant paid by the State Government to Junior High School prior to 1966 continued in 1967 and onwards, was maintenance grant to the recognised institution. As the payment of maintenance grant is admitted and it is not the case of the respondent that maintenance grant was not in respect of employment of teachers and employees the claim of the petitioners is well founded.
15. On the basis of Manager's return for 1976-77 and 1977-78 wherein the name of petitioner No. 2 does not find place the learned Chief Standing Counsel has urged that he is not entitled to any relief. The omission to mention the name of a teacher or employee in the Manager's return may not disentitle him so long he is a teacher or employee of the recognised institution. This however is a question of fact. It has been raised in the supplementary counter-affidavit. We, therefore, leave it to be decided by the authorities. In case he is also a confirmed teacher of the institution he shall be entitled to the benefit of Section 10.
16. The result is that this petition succeeds and is allowed. The respondent No. 1 is directed to pay the salary of the petitioners for the months mentioned in the chart filed as Annexure I to the writ petition within six weeks from today. The copy of the judgment shall be made available within three days, in case the applications are made for it.