N.N. Sharma, J.
1. This revision is directed against the order dated 5-5-1983 recorded by Sri R. B. L. Khandelwal, Sessions Judge, Varanasi on an application by informant Babulal for cancellation of bail granted to revisionists by learned Munsif-Magistrate, II, Varanasi relating to Crime No 32 of 1983, Police Station Rohania district Varanasi under Sections 147, 148, 149, 307, 323, 324, 435 and 295 I.P.C. on 14-2-1983.
2. Learned Sessions Judge observed that Section 307, I.P.C. was punishable with imprisonment for Life and so in view of proviso to Section 437 of the Cr. P.C. Magistrate had no jurisdiction to grant bail in this case to revisionists as neither any of them was under 16 years of age nor women or sick or infirm person.
3. Parties were heard and the impugned order was recorded.
4. Learned Advocate for revisionists argued before me that learned Magistrate had power to enlarge the revisionists on bail and there was no lack of jurisdiction. In this connection reliance was placed upon Bohre Singh v. State reported in 1956 All LJ 646 : 1956 Cri LJ 1275 which reads :--
There is nothing in the Cr. P.C. which bars a Magistrate from granting bail even though bail may have been refused by the Sessions Judge at an earlier stage. Section 497(2) itself contemplates a power in the committing Magistrate to grant bail at a subsequent stage of inquiry. An application for bail may have been refused by the Sessions Judge but that did not take away the power of the Magistrate to grant bail at a latter stage of the proceedings provided the other conditions under Section 497 (2) were satisfied.
5. It appears that in that case bail was granted by Addl. District Magistrate in an inquiry under Section 302, I.P.C. Sessions Judge had earlier rejected the bail application. So the competence of Addl. District Magistrate to grant bail after its refusal by Sessions Judge was assailed. It was held that Magistrate could grant bail. It appears that (hat case was governed by Section 497 of Act No. 5 of 1898 of the old Cr. P.C.
6. Learned Advocate further pointed out that the language employed in Section 497, Sub-clause (1) of the old Code was identical with the language employed in Section 437, Sub-clause (1) of the new Code (Act No. 2 of 1974) which is worded as below :--
437. When bail may be taken in case of non-bailable offence:- (1) When any person accused of or suspected of the commission of any non-bailable offence is arrested or detained without warrant by an officer-in-charge of a police station or appears or is brought before a Court other than the High Court or Court of Session, he may be released on bail, but he shall not be so released if there appear reasonable grounds for believing that he has been guilty of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life:
Provided that the Court may direct that any person under the age of sixteen years or any woman or any sick or infirm person accused of such an offence be released on bail....
7. learned Counsel for revisionists frankly conceded that a contrary view in the matter was taken in Surendra v. State of U.P. reported in 1976 All WC 277.
8. In that case bail was granted by Magistrate treating the case to be one under Sections 147, 323 and 324 I.P.C. only. An application for cancellation of bail was moved before the learned Magistrate on the ground that the case was in fact under Section 307, I.P.C. That application was rejected by the learned Magistrate on 21-7-1975 observing that the proper forum for applying for cancellation of bail was the Sessions Court. He further observed that the bail already granted would be deemed to have been granted under Section 307, I.P.C. also.
9. The learned Sessions Judge found that there was an intention to kill and so it was a case under Section 307, I.P.C. and so he cancelled the bail of applicants.
10. That order was attacked in Criminal Revision No. 1302 of 1975. Surendra v. State of U.P. (supra) and it was observed at page 278:--
From the order dated 21-7-1975 passed by the Magistrate, it appears that the entire data was not before him when he had granted the bail. The learned Sessions Judge was justified in cancelling the bail only on the ground that the Magistrate had acted beyond his jurisdiction.
11. Learned Advocate for the revisionists further relied upon Gurcharan Singh v. State reported in AIR 1978 SC 179 : 1978 Cri LJ 129 which posited :-
If a police officer arrests a person on a reasonable suspicion of commission of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life and forwards him to a Magistrate, the Magistrate at that stage will have no reasons to hold that there are no reasonable grounds for believing that he has not been guilty of such an offence. At that stage, unless the Magistrate is able to act under the proviso to Section 437(1), bail appears to be out of the question. The only limited inquiry may then relate to the materials for the suspicion. The position will naturally change as investigation progresses and more facts and circumstances come to light. Section 439(1), on the other hand, confers special powers on the High Court or the Court of Session in respect of bail. Unlike under Section 437(1) there is no ban imposed under Section 439(1), against granting of bail by the High Court or the Court of Session to persons accused of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life. It is, however legitimate to suppose that the High Court or the Court of Session will be approached by an accused only after he has failed before the Magistrate and after the investigation has progressed throwing light on the evidence and circumstances implicating the accused....
12. Thus his contention was that the Magistrate was not without jurisdiction while releasing the revisionists on bail. On the other hand learned Counsel for the opposite party pointed out that at the stage of investigation the power to release on bail was conferred by Section 167 of the Cr. P.C. Section 437, Cr. P.C. deals with the powers of Magistrate to enlarge on bail in non-bailable offence. Stress was laid on para 22 which occurs at page 185 and reads as below:-
In other non-bailable cases the Court will exercise its judicial discretion in favour of granting bail subject to Sub-section (3) of Section 437, Cr. P.C. if it deems necessary to act under it. Unless exceptional circumstances are brought to the notice of the Court which may defeat proper investigation and a fair trial, the Court will not decline to grant bail to a person who is not accused of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life. It is also clear that when an accused is brought before the Court of a Magistrate with the allegation against him of an offence punishable with death, or imprisonment for life, he has ordinarily no option in the matter but to refuse bail subject, however, to the first proviso to Section 437(1), Cr. P.C. and in a case where the Magistrate entertains a reasonable belief on the materials that the accused has not been guilty of such an offence. This will, however, be an extraordinary occasion since there will be some materials at the stage of initial arrest, for the accusation or for strong suspicion of commission by the person of such an offence.
13. learned Counsel for the revisionists also relied upon Delhi Administration v. Sanjay Gandhi reported in : 1978CriLJ952 where it was observed (para 13):-
Rejection of bail when bail is applied for is one thing, cancellation of bail already granted is quite another. It is easier to reject a bail application in a non-bailable case than to cancel a bail granted in such a case. Cancellation of bail necessarily involves the review of a decision already made and can by and large be permitted only if, by reason of supervening circumstances, it would be no longer conducive to a fair trial to allow the accused to retain his freedom during the trial.
Thus the contention was that learned Magistrate was not justified in cancellation of bail.
14. On a careful consideration of the said authorities I find that usually bail can be cancelled for such reasons as chances of accused of jumping the bail, threatening or influencing the witnesses, interfering with the investigation or prosecution, obstructing the judicial process or otherwise misusing or abusing the bail. As was held in Ram Murti v. Slate reported in 1975 All WC 479 : 1976 Cri LJ 211. The Scheme of the new Code shows that in cases exclusively triable by Court of Session the stage of enquiry as provided by Chapter XVIII of the old Cr. P.C. has been cut down; in cases triable exclusively by Court of Session Magistrate has to commit the accused to the Court of Session and not to embark on a detailed inquiry and to frame charges, etc. against the accused. He has to commit the accused to the Court of Session under Section 209, Cr. P.C. as soon as the accused appears or is brought before him. In the instant case also the Magistrate had no occasion to, observe nor observed that there were no reasonable grounds to believe that the revisionists had not committed an offence under Section 307, I, P.C. So while enlarging the accused on bail the over-stepped his powers which were limited under Section 437(1) of the Cr. P.C. The entire matter was not before him and he had granted the bail. Sessions Judge and High Court who had wider powers to enlarge the revisionists on bail under Section 439, Cr. P.C. were not approached by the revisionists. Under the circumstances I find that learned Sessions Judge could have rightly cancelled the bail when he was satisfied that the Magistrate has gone beyond his powers in enlarging the revisionists on bail.
15. It is correct that there was difficulty in cancellation of bail by Sessions Judge when the accused was released in bailable offences under the old Code. In Madhukar v. Talab Haji Hussain : AIR1958Bom406 it was held that bail granted for bailable offences could be cancelled by the High Court under Section 561-A of the Cr. P.C. on the ground that the accused was intimidating witnesses. That was a case from Bombay High Court in an offence under Section 167 (81) Sea Customs Act which was a bailable offence. However, under the new Code Section 439, Sub-clause (2) empowers the High Court or Court of Session to cancel the bail of any person who has been released on bail under Chapter XXXIII of the Code. So the order of learned Sessions Judge for cancellation of bail is unassailable.
16. No other illegality or infirmity in the, order of the cancellation by learned Sessions Judge was pointed out to ray satisfaction; under the circumstances when there is an alternative remedy available to the revisionists to move fresh application for bail, the revision is liable to rejection as devoid of force.
17. So the revision is dismissed as devoid of force. Stay order dated 11-5-1983 issued by this Court is vacated.
18. Let the revisionists surrender to their bail bonds within four days.