1. By this petition under Section 491 of the Code of Criminal Procedure the petitioner challenges the validity of his detention in the district jail at Kanpur in pursuance of an order of the civil authority, Kanpur dated '26-9-1965 purporting to be under para 5/8 of the Foreigners' (Internment) Order, 1962.
2. The facts which are relevant to the questions in controversy shortly stated are these.
3. The petitioner came to India on the basis of a Pakistani Passport and a short term visa in August 1956. The Government of Uttar Pradesh moved the Central Government to determine the national status of the petitioner in accordance with Section 9(2) of the Citizenship Act, 1955, and the rules made thereunder. A notice was issued to the petitioner to show cause. In response to that notice the petitioner sent a written representation to the Central Government praying that he be declared to be a citizen of India. The Central Government, however, by its order dated the 27th August, 1956, after considering the cause shown by the petitioner determined that the petitioner had voluntarily acquired the citizenship of Pakistan after 26th of January, 1950, and before 24th of July, 1956. In pursuance of an order passed by the Civil authority, the petitioner was arrested on 26th of September, 1965, and since then he is in the district Jail at Kanpur.
4. Learned counsel for the petitioner has raised various contentions for challenging the validity of the detention order. It is contended that when the Government of India's notification dated the 19lh April, 1958, entrusting to the State Governments its powers under the Foreigners' Act was issued, Sub-section (g) of Section 3 of the Act as it stands today was not in existence and therefore there was no delegation by the Central Government to the Stale Government of its functions in respect of that Sub-section. It is contended that the appointment of civil authorities by the State Government, for effecting arrest and detention of the foreigners under the Foreigners' (Internment) Order is therefore, invalid. The other contentions raised by the learned Counsel are that investing powers of the civil authority in a police officer contravenes the provisions of Section 20 of the Police Art and the detention of the petitioner being against the provisions of the Geneva Convention Act, 1960, must be struck down as unsustainable in law. Learned counsel contends that the entrustment of the functions of the Central Government to the State Government and to its Executive Officers by the Central Government is not in accordance with the provisions of Article 258 of the Constitution and as such the State Government or its. officers cannot derive any authority in law to function in respect of the Foreigner's Act, Foreigners' (Internment) Order and Registration of Foreigners Rules etc,
5. The Government of India's Notification No. 4/3/56-(1) F. I., dated the t9lh April, 1958, clearly mentioned that the President with the. consent of the Slate Government concerned entrusts to the Government of each of the Slate the functions of the Central Government under Rule 3 of the Registration of Foreigners Rules, 1939; in making orders of the nature specified in various clauses of Section 3 of the Foreigners' Act, 1946, and under the Foreigners' Order 1948, subject to certain conditions. This notification has been issued by the President in exercise of the powers conferred by clauses of Article 258 of the Constitution. The argument of the learned Counsel that the entrustment is not in accordance with the aforesaid Article is, therefore, wholly misconceived and must be rejected.
6. By virtue of the authority delegated to it by the Government of India the State Government by its notification dated December 28, 1959, and in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-paragraph (2) of Paragraph 2 of the Foreigners Order, 1948, has appointed the District Superintendents of Police as Civil authorities for their respective districts.
7. Section 2 of the Foreigners' (Internment) Order, 1962, defines civil authority as the civil authority appointed under paragraph 2 of the Foreigners' Order, 1948, and Section 5 of the aforesaid order invests the 'civil authority' of the area to arrest or cause to be arrested any Pakistani national or other foreigner. It is, therefore, obvious that the appointment of the civil authority by the State Government under the Foreigners' Order, 1948, is valid having been made in exercise of the power delegated to it by the Central Government and the 'civil authority' so appointed is also the 'civil authority ' for the purposes of the Foreigners' (Internment) Order, 1962, and the power of arrest which he exercises in respect of the foreigners and Pakistani nationals is a power which has been vested in him by the Foreigners' (Internment) Order, 1962. Therefore the fact that when the Government of India entrusted its functions to the State Government in respect of the Foreigners' Act, 1946, and the Foreigners' (Internment) Order, 1962, Sub-clause (g) of Section 3 of the Foreigners' Act was then not in existence is not of any significance.
8. In the Case of Shafiquel Rahman Khan v. Supdt. Meerut Jail. Cr. Misc. Case No. 2958 of 1965 : AIR1966All431 , we have already held that Section 20 of the Police Act does not create any bat for the respective police officers to function as civil authorities for the purposes of Foreigners' (Internment) Order.
9. The contention of the learned Counsel that the detention of the petitioner is against the provisions of the Geneva Conventions Act,1960. is again misconceived. The provisions of the aforesaid Act do not come into play in a case of the present nature and there is nothing to show that the petitioner is not being treated in a humane manner.
10. As all the contentions in support of the petition fail, it is dismissed.