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Manohar Lal Vs. Valerior (Cawnpore) Pvt. Ltd. and anr. - Court Judgment

LegalCrystal Citation
SubjectCivil
CourtAllahabad High Court
Decided On
Case NumberCivil Revn. No. 1620 of 1979
Judge
Reported inAIR1980All327
ActsCode of Civil Procedure (CPC) , 1908 - Sections 115 and 115(1)
AppellantManohar Lal
RespondentValerior (Cawnpore) Pvt. Ltd. and anr.
Appellant AdvocateRavi S. Dhawan, Adv.
Respondent AdvocateS.P. Mehrotra, Adv.
DispositionRevision dismissed
Excerpt:
.....court shall not vary or reverse any order made or any order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or proceeding except where the order if it had been made in favour of the party applying for revision would have finally disposed of the suit or other proceeding, or the order if allowed to stand would occasion a failure of justice or cause an irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made. (air 1970 sc 406) was no longer good law in view of the amendment made in section 115. with great respect, i find myself unable to agree with that view. the proviso qualifies the expression 'the high court may make such order in the case as it thinks fit' and states that the high court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any order made, or any order deciding an issue, in the..........court shall not vary or reverse any order made or any order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or proceeding except where the order if it had been made in favour of the party applying for revision would have finally disposed of the suit or other proceeding, or the order if allowed to stand would occasion a failure of justice or cause an irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made.4. clauses (a) and (b) of the proviso thus enable the high court tp vary or reverse any order passed in a suit or proceeding, and the question is: what is the true meaning of the word 'order' in clauses (a) and (b) and whether it has to amount to deciding a case for the purposes of being revisable under section 115. learned counsel for the applicant urged that the proviso contemplates that.....
Judgment:
ORDER

Gopi Nath, J.

1. This revision is directed against an order passed by the District Judge, Kanpur dated 15-9-1977 refusing to recall a witness for purposes of further cross-examination. The application (No. 105 C-2) which was moved for that purpose by the defendant-applicant was dismissed by the impugned order.

2. A preliminary objection has been raised that the revision is not maintainable as the order does not amount to deciding any case. Learned counsel for the applicant contended that in view of the amendment made to Section 115 of the Civil P.C. by Section 43 of the Civil P.C. Amendment Act 1976, hereinafter referred to as 'the Amendment Act', the revision is maintainable. Section 115 of the Civil P.C. reads as follows :--

'115. Revision--(1) The High Court may call for the record of any case which has been decided by any Court subordinate to such High Court and in which no appeal lies thereto, and if such subordinate Court appears--

(a) to have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law, or

(b) to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested, or

(c) to have acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity,

the High Court may make such order in the case as it thinks fit:

Provided that the High Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any order made, or any order deciding an issue, in the course of a suit or other proceeding, except where--

(a) the order, if it had been made in favour of the party applying for revision, would have finally disposed of the suit or other proceeding, or

(b) the order, if allowed to stand, would occasion a failure of justice or cause irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made.

(2) The High Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any decree or order against which an appeal lies either to the High Court or to any Court subordinate thereto.

Explanation -- In this Section, the expression 'any case which has been decided' includes any order made, or any order deciding an issue, in the course of a suit or other proceeding.'

Note

The proviso to Sub-section (1) and Sub-section (2) of Section 115, Civil P.C., were added by the Amendment Act.

According to the learned counsel, the proviso enlarges the scope of Section 115, and the effect of the amendment is that any order made in the course of a suit or other proceeding is open to revision. I am accordingly called upon to consider the true scope and effect of the proviso added to Section 115(1), and in particular, the meaning and true construction of the word 'order' occurring in Clauses (a) and (b) of the proviso.

3. Section 115 C.P.C. deals with the power of the High Court in revision in regard to any case which has been decided by any court subordinate to it. The proviso to Sub-section (1) states that the High Court shall not vary or reverse any order made or any order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or proceeding except where the order if it had been made in favour of the party applying for revision would have finally disposed of the suit or other proceeding, or the order if allowed to stand would occasion a failure of justice or cause an irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made.

4. Clauses (a) and (b) of the proviso thus enable the High Court tp vary or reverse any order passed in a suit or proceeding, and the question is: what is the true meaning of the word 'order' in Clauses (a) and (b) and whether it has to amount to deciding a case for the purposes of being revisable under Section 115. Learned counsel for the applicant urged that the proviso contemplates that the order falling under Clauses (a) and (b) may not amount to deciding any case in order to become revisable. My attention was invited to Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. v. Rajarishi Exports (P) Ltd. (AIR 1978 Orissa 179) which laid down that in view of the amendment made in Section 115, Civil P.C., the scope of revisional powers had been enlarged and orders which may not amount to deciding a case may also fall within the purview of Section 115. It was held in that case that Baldevdas Shivlal v. Filmistan Distributors (India) Pvt. Ltd. (AIR 1970 SC 406) was no longer good law in view of the amendment made in Section 115. With great respect, I find myself unable to agree with that view. The proviso to Section 115, to my mind, is a provision concerned with the power of the High Court to pass an order in exercise of its revisional jurisdiction. The proviso qualifies the expression 'the High Court may make such order in the case as it thinks fit' and states that the High Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any order made, or any order deciding an issue, in the course of a suit or other proceeding, except where -- (a) the order, if it had been made in favour of the party applying for revision, would have finally disposed of the suit or other proceeding, or (b) the order, if allowed to stand, would occasion a failure of justice or cause irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made. The proviso thus limits the power of the High Court and provides that it shall not vary or reverse any order except where the conditions laid in Clauses (a) and (b) are satisfied. The proviso does not touch or affect the opening part of Section 115 which states that 'The High Court may call for the record of any case which has been decided by any Court subordinate to such High Court.' It only restricts the exercise of power in regard to orders which amount to deciding a case. A restriction imposed in regard to the exercise of power cannot be construed as enlarging the scope of the expression 'any case which has been decided' by any subordinate Court. Under the proviso, even if an order amounted to deciding a case, its variance or reversal has to depend upon the fulfilment of the conditions laid down in Clauses (a) and (b). In any event, the order has to amount to a 'case decided' before it can be called in question under Section 115. The explanation added to the section does not indicate anything to the contrary. It only suggests that the order in question need not dispose of the entire suit in order to amount to a 'case decided'. In Smt. Harvinder Kaur v. Godha Ram (AIR 1979 Punj and Har 76) it was held that an order made in the course of a suit or proceeding would be revisable only when it determines or adjudicates upon some right or obligation of the parties in controversy, and the Explanation added to Section 115 cannot be interpreted to mean that every order made in the course of a suit or other proceeding would be revisable. In Modi Spinning & Weaving Mills Co. v. Ladha Ram & Co., (AIR 1978 All 260) it was held that in order to attract the provisions of Section 115, a case must be held to have been decided by a court subordinate to the High Court (see also Mahendra Pratap Kapur v. Burmah Shell Oil Storage and Distributing Co. Ltd. (AIR 1973 All 109), Sada Ram v. Delhi Development Authority, (AIR 1974 Delhi 35); Smt. Shanti Kaur v. Smt. Haseen Jahan Regum (1976 All LR 694) and Budh Sagar v. Rajeshwar (1976 All WC 616)). In Madhu Limaye v. State of Maharashtra (AIR 1978 SC 47, at p. 53) it was observed :

'. ... Many a time a question arose in India as to what is the exact meaning of the phrase 'case decided' occurring in Section 115 of the Civil P.C. Some High Courts had taken the view that it meant the final order passed on final determination of the action. Many others had, however, opined that even interlocutory orders were covered by the said term. This Court struck a mean and it did not approve of either of the two extreme lines'. In Baldeodas Shivlal v. Filmistan Distributors (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Supra) it has been pointed put at p. 410 'a case may be said to be decided if the court adjudicates for the purposes of the suit some right or obligation of the parties in controversy' (see also Major S.S. Khanna v. F.J. Dillon (AIR 1964 SC 497)). It is thus fairly settled that in order to constitute a case decided, the order must adjudicate upon some right or obligation of the parties in controversy. In Central Bank of India Ltd. v. Gokal Chand (AIR 1967 SC 799, at p. 800) it was held that orders, regarding summoning of witnesses, discovery, production and inspection of documents, issue of a commission for examination of witnesses, inspection of premises, fixing a date of hearing and the admissibility of a document or the relevancy of a question are matters which do not affect the rights or liabilities of the parties. Interlocutory orders in these respects are steps taken towards the final adjudication. They regulate the procedure only, and do not affect any rights. In the instant case, the impugned order refused the request of the applicant to recall a witness for further cross-examination. An order recalling a witness for further examination or refusing to recall him for that purpose is not an order adjudicating upon any right or liability of the parties in controversy. The impugned order, accordingly, does not amount to a case decided within the meaning of Section 115. The revision is, therefore, not maintainable.

The revision fails and is dismissed. In the circumstances of the case, there shall be no order as to costs.


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