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Saraswati Vs. Tulsi Ram Seth and ors. - Court Judgment

LegalCrystal Citation
SubjectCivil
CourtDelhi High Court
Decided On
Case NumberCivil Revn. No. 3 of 1968
Judge
Reported inAIR1971Delhi110
ActsBar Council of India Rules; Advocates Act, 1961 - Sections 16 (3); Code of Civil Procedure (CPC), 1908 - Sections 119 - Order 3, Rules 1, 4(1) and 4(5); Supreme Court Rules, 1966 - Order 4, Rule 2
AppellantSaraswati
RespondentTulsi Ram Seth and ors.
Appellant Advocate R.L. Aggarwal,; Arun Kumar,; B.R. Sabharwal, Advs
Respondent Advocate Bawa Shivcharan Singh and ; C.V. Francis, Advs.
Cases ReferredSatyanarayana v. Venkata Subbiah Air
Excerpt:
civil - powers of senior advocates - section 119, order 3 rules 1, 4(1) and 4 (5) of code of civil procedure, 1908, section 16 (3) of advocates act, 1961, bar council of india rules and order 4 rule 2 of supreme court rules, 1966 - senior advocate debarred from examination and cross-examination of witness by subordinate judge as examining witness was 'acting' - revision appeal filed against order - act and pleading defined according to precedents and provisions - held, senior advocate cannot be prevented from examining witness as same not covered under expression 'acting'. - section 13: [altamas kabir & cyriac joseph,jj] custody of child - welfare of child vis--vis comity of courts - the minor girl child of 3 1/2 years was brought to india by her mother. the minor girl was a citizen of.....sachar, j.1. the question that requires determination in this petition is whether a senior advocate, designated under the advocates act, 1961, and supreme court rules, is debarred form examining or cross-examining the witnesses as this would amount to `acting' in a court on his part which admittedly a senior advocate is prohibited from doing.2. a suit has been filed by the plaintiff-respondent for the recovery or rs.14,722.61 and a mandatory injunction for possession under section 66 of the specific relief act. during the trial of the suit, mr. hans raj sawhey, a senior advocate of the supreme court and the high court appearing for the defendant, wanted to examine certain witnesses. this was objected to by bawa shivcharan singh, advocate, for the plaintiff on the ground that mr. sawhney.....
Judgment:

Sachar, J.

1. The question that requires determination in this petition is whether a senior advocate, designated under the Advocates Act, 1961, and Supreme Court Rules, is debarred form examining or cross-examining the witnesses as this would amount to `acting' in a court on his part which admittedly a senior advocate is prohibited from doing.

2. A suit has been filed by the plaintiff-respondent for the recovery or Rs.14,722.61 and a mandatory injunction for possession under Section 66 of the Specific Relief Act. During the trial of the suit, Mr. Hans Raj Sawhey, a Senior Advocate of the Supreme Court and the High Court appearing for the defendant, wanted to examine certain witnesses. This was objected to by Bawa Shivcharan Singh, Advocate, for the plaintiff on the ground that Mr. Sawhney being a senior advocate could not `act'. Accordingly, it was contended that an examination and cross-examination of witnesses come under the definition of the term `act' Mr. Sawhney could not proceed with the examination or cross-examination of the witness. The contention found favor with Shri P. L. Singla, Subordinate Judge, who by his order dated November 28, 1967 held that examination and cross-examination of a witness is `acting' and as senior advocate is debarred from `acting' he is consequently debarred from examining and cross-examining the witnesses.

3. A revision was filed against that order which came before me sitting singly. I felt that the point raised in the revision is important for the members of the bar and it was in the fitness of things that this matter be decided by a larger Bench. I, thereforee, referred this matter to my lord the Chief Justice for constituting a larger Bench. This is how the matter has come up before us for decision.

4. Sub-section (1) of S. 16 of the Advocates Act, 1961, provides for two classes of advocates. Sub-section (2) of S. 16 provides that an advocate may, with his consent, be designated as senior advocate if the Supreme Court or a High Court is of opinion that by virtue of his ability, experience and standing at the Bar he is deserving of such distinction. Sub-section (3) of S. 16 provides that senior advocates shall, in the matter of their practice, be subject to such restrictions as the Bar Council of India may, in the interests of the legal profession, prescribe, Section 49 gives power to the Bar Council of India to make rules to discharging its functions under the Act. Part Vi of the Bar Council of India Rules dealt with the Rules of governing advocates. Chapter I of this part deals with restrictions on senior advocates as contemplated under Section 16(3) of the Act. Restrictions under the Rules relevant for the purpose are as under:-

'Rules governing advocates:

Senior Advocates shall, in the matter of their practice of the profession of law mentioned in Section 30 of the Act, be subject to the following restrictions:-

(a) A senior advocate shall not file a vakalat or act in any Court or Tribunal, on before any person or other authority mentioned in Section 30 of the Act.

Explanationn - `to act' means to file an appearance or any pleading or application in any Court, or Tribunal or before any person or other authority mentioned in the said section either in person or by his recognised agent or by an advocate or an attorney on his behalf.'

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'(c) He shall not accept instructions to draft pleadings or affidavits, advice on evidence or to do any drafting work of an analogous kind in any Court, or Tribunal, or before any person or other authority mentioned in Section 30 of the Act or undertaking conveyancing work of any kind whatsoever. This restriction however shall not extend to setting any such matter as aforesaid in consultation with an advocate in Part Ii of the Common Roll'.

5. Similarly in exercise of its powers conferred by Art. 145 of the Constitution of India the Supreme Court has framed the Rules known as the Supreme Court Rules, 1966. Order 4, Rule 2(a) provides that the Chief Justice and the Judges may with the consent of the advocate designate an advocate as senior advocate if in their opinion by virtue of his ability, experience and standing of the Bar the said advocate is deserving of such distinction. Rule 2 (b) of ).4 provides as under:-

'A senior advocate shall not -

(i) file a vakalatnama or act in any Court or tribunal in India.

(ii) appear without an advocate on record in the Court or without a junior in any other Court or tribunal in India.

(iii) accept instructions to draw pleadings or affidavits, advice an evidence or do any drafting work of an analogous kind in any Court or tribunal in India or undertake conveyancing work of any kind whatsoever but this prohibition shall not extend to settling any such matter as aforesaid in consultation with a junior.

(iv) accept directly from a client any brief or instructions to appear in any Court or tribunal in India.

Explanationn:-

In this Order :-

(i) `acting' means filing an appearance or any pleadings or applications in any Court or tribunal in India, or any act (other than pleadings) required or authorised by law to be done by a party in such court or tribunal either in person or by his recognised agent or by an advocate or attorney on his behalf.

(ii) `tribunal' includes any authority or person legally authorised to take evidence and before whom advocates are, by or under any law for the time being in force, entitled to practice.

(iii) `junior' means an advocate other than a senior advocate.

6. It is not the case of the plaintiff-respondent that there is any specific bar under the Advocates Act, 1961, or the Bar Council of India Rules or the Supreme Court Rules, 1966 restricting a senior advocate to examine or cross examine the witnesses. The restriction is sought be supported by the restrictions mentioned in the Rules namely that a senior advocate shall not `act' in any court. This argument is based on the contention that the restriction that a senior advocate shall not `act' in any court means that he is not entitled to examine a witness as the examination of witness is covered by the word `act'. It is contended that the senior advocate is only entitled to plead which, according to Bawa Shivcharan Singh, the learned counsel, means that he can address the court. The short question, thereforee, that falls for determination is whether the examination of witness is to be included in the word `act' or `pleading'. It is not disputed by the learned counsel for the respondent that if the examination or cross-examination of a witness is not covered by the word `act' there would be no prohibition against the senior advocate to examine witness as the argument is based only on the hypothesis that the examination of witness is included in the word `act'.

7. The word `act' and `pleading' also occur in Rules 1, 4 (1) and (5) of Order 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure and they read as under:-

'Rule 1

Any appearance application or act in or to any Court, required or authorised by law to be made or done by a party in such Court, may, except where otherwise expressly provided by any law for the time being in force, be made or done by the party in person, or by his recognised `agent', as the case may be, on his behalf:

Provided that any such appearance shall, if the Court so directs, be made by the party in person.

Rule 4(1)

No pleader shall act for any person in any Court, unless he has been appointed for the purpose by such person by a document in writing signed by such person or by his recognised agent or by some other person duly authorised by or under a power of attorney to make such appointment.

Rule 4(5)

No pleader who has been engaged for the purpose of pleading only shall plead on behalf of any party, unless he has filed in Court a memorandum of appearance signed by himself and stating

(a) the names of the parties to the suit,

(b) the name of the party for whom he appears, and

(c) the name of the person by whom he is authroised to appear;

Provided that nothing in this sub rule shall apply to any pleader engaged to plead on behalf of any party by any other pleader who has been duly appointed to act in Court on behalf of such party'.

It would be seen that Cls (1) and (5) of Rule 4 of Order 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure make a distinction between the words `act' and `pleading' as in the former case power of attorney is necessary whereas only a memorandum of appearance is necessary in the latter date.

8. Mr. Radhey Lal Aggarwal, the learned counsel for the petitioner, submits that there is a difference between the words `act' and `pleading' and that `act' must be restricted to the acts other than examination of a witness and the right of audience, and the later are covered by the word `pleading'. The interpretation of the words `act' and `pleading' has been the subject-matter of a number of decisions under Order 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure and it will be proper now to make a reference to them.

9. In Harchand Ray Gobordon Das v. B. N. Ry. Co. Air 1916 Cal 181 a Division Bench consisting of Jenkins, C. J. and Chatterjee, J held that a recognised agent has no right of audience under Order 3, Rule 1 of Civil P.c. This authority clearly, thereforee, recognised that the word `act; would not include the right of audience.

10. A similar matter came up for decision in a case reported as In re Eastern Tavoy Mineral Corporation Ltd. : AIR1934Cal563 where Buckland, J. followed as earlier Calcutta case and held as under:-

'To plead' is not to make or do an appearance or an application or an act, and is not within Order 3 Rules 1 and 2. thereforee, a recognised agent as such has no right to audience'.

11. This matter was also considered by a Division Bench in a case reported as Jivan Lal v. Ram Rattan Air 1936 Oudh 261. In this case it was held as under:

'A recognised agent cannot be allowed to plead and argue. The word `any appearance, application or act' mean no more than that he can appear, make applications and take such steps as may be necessary in the course of the litigation for the purpose of the case of his principal; he cannot plead or argue for his principal.'

12. Reference may also be made to the Full Bench decision in case Thayarammal v. Kuppuswami Naidu, : AIR1937Mad937 . In that case one of the questions that was to be answered by the Full Bench was whether an agent with a power of attorney to appear and conduct judicial proceedings has the right of audience in Court. The Full Bench referred to an earlier unreported Bench decision of the High Court wherein it had been held that a right to appear in court for its principal given to a recognised agent by Order 3, Rules 1 and 2 of the Code of Civil procedure does not include relied on the earlier two Calcutta cases namely Harchand Rav Gobordon Das. Air 1916 Cal 18and In re Eastern Today Minerals Corporation, Ltd. : AIR1934Cal563 and held that O. 3 Rr. 1 and 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure does not give a recognised agent by right to plead in court on behalf of his principal in the appellate or original side of the High Court.

13. The matter also came up for hearing in Aswin Shambhuprasad Patel v. National Rayon Corporation Ltd., : AIR1955Bom262 wherein Chagla, C. J. referred with approvals to the Calcutta cases as held as under:-

'The expression `appearance, application or act in or to any Court' in O. 3, R.1 Civil P.C. does not include pleadings. The right of audience in Court, the right to address the Court, the right to examine and cross-examine witnesses are all parts of pleading with which O.3 does not deal at all. It deals with a restricted class or acts in connection with the litigation in Court and it is with regard to that restricted class of acts that Order 3 permits recognised agents to be appointed'.

Changla, C. J. has specifically observed that the right of audience in Court, the right to address the Court, the right to examine and cross-examine witnesses are all parts of pleadings with which Order 3 does not deal at all. This case is an authority for the proposition that examination and cross-examination of witnesses are not covered in the definition of the word `act' but the rather covered by the word `pleading'

14. The next case which elaborately dealt with the matter is Pannalal v. Deoji Dhanji, Air 1955 Mad Bha 109 where after noticing the previous cases, Samvatsar, J. held as follows:-

'It is the privilege of a pleader to be allowed to plead and to claim an audience for the purpose and a recognised agent has no such right. The words `appearance, application or act' in O. 3, R. 1 only mean appear, make application and take such other necessary steps as may be required to be taken up for the progress of the proceedings. A recognised agent cannot, thereforee, be allowed to examine witnesses on behalf of his principal or to cross-examine the witness of the other side'.

15. The next case referred to is Samdukhan v. Madanla, . In this case also it was held that Order 3 Rule 1 of the Code of Civil Procedure does not include pleading or arguing and a recognised agent cannot be allowed to `plead' and `argue' under this rule. The Calcutta and Bombay cases discussed earlier where also referred to with approval.

16. Bawa Shivcharan Singh learned counsel for the respondent relied greatly on the case reported as Governor-General in Council v. Bhagwan Sahai, Air 1948 Ep 61 where Teja Singh, J. after holding that `pleading' and `acting' stand on different footings held that `pleading' in the limited sense of arguing the matter is a special privilege of the pleader and the recognised agent did not have the privilege, but nevertheless held that a recognised agent can cross-examine the witnesses because the examination of witnesses is covered under the term `acting' as this was merely taking action for the proper conduct of the case.

17. The next case in which a similar view was taken in Govind Narain v. Smt. Chhoti Devi Air 1966 Raj 170 where Jagat Narayan, J. held as follows:

'A recognised agent of a party is entitled to examine and cross-examine witnesses, as examining and cross-examining a witness is acting and not `pleading'. To plead means to argue in support of means addressing the court. An examination of the language of Section 119 of the Code goes to show that the authors of the Code goes to show that the authors of the Code made a distinction between addressing the court and examining witnesses in court. If it were the intention of the farmers of the Code that no one except the party himself or his pleader should examine or cross-examine witnesses, this intention would have been expressed by the use of appropriate words. For literally speaking examining and cross-examining witnesses is `acting' and not `pleading'. Under Order 3 Rule 4(5) a pleader can plead without filing a Vakalatanama. But no pleader is allowed to examine or cross-examine witnesses unless he has filed his Vakalatnama. This is obviously because examination and cross-examination of witnesses amounts to `acting' and O. 3 R 4(1) lays down that no pleader shall act for any person in any court unless he has been appointed by such person by a document in writing, that is by a Vakalatnama'.

His Lordship followed the observations of Teja Singh, J in Air 1948 Ep 61 and dissented form the observations of Changla, C. J. in Aswin Shambhuprasad Patel's case, : AIR1955Bom262 and the observations of Samvatsar, J. in Pannalal's case, Air 1955 Madh Bha 109.

18. Though the words `act' and `pleading' have not been defined in the Code some of the cases have purported to give definition of the word `act'. In re Fuzzle Ali, (1873) 19 Wr Cr 8 (Cal) the expression `act' was defined by Phear J as under:-

'I think that the word `act' there means the doing of something as the agent of the principal party, which shall be recognised or taken notice or by the Court as the act of the principal; such for instance as filing a document.'

19. In Kali Kumar Roy v. Nobin Chunder Chuckerbutty, (1881) 2 6 Cal 585, White, J. (Mitter, J. concurring) observed as follows:-

'To act for a client in Court is to take on his behalf in the Court, or in the offices of the Court, the necessary steps that must be taken in the course of the litigation in order that his case may be property laid before the Court'.

20. These two definitions of the expression of word `act' were approved in a Division Bench case reported as Sawarmal v. Kunjilal, Air 1939 Ran 1 wherein their Lordships held that a plaint or memorandum of appeal which is drawn up and signed by the pleader duly authorised under O. 3, R. 4 there is nothing contrary to the provisions of the Rule if the said appeal was handed over by another pleader to whom that task has been delegated by the authorised pleader and the appeal filed was treated to have been properly filed. Their Lordships held that this was a ministerial function. In this case, thereforee, the presentation of an appeal was considered to be covered in the expression `act'.

21. Another case in which expression `acting' was also considered is the Full Bench case in Satyanarayana v. Venkata Subbiah Air 1957 AP 172 . In that case execution petition had been signed by the party as well as by the pleader but was presented by another pleader who had no power of attorney at the time he presented the petition. The question that arose was whether the presentation of an application by a pleader to whom the authority in the prescribed manner under rule 4 of Order 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure was not given is only an irregularity which could be cured at a subsequent stage. The argument was based on the fact as the pleader who presented the application did not have the power of attorney there was want of authority on the part of a pleader of the `act' within the meaning of Order 3, Rule 4. Civil P.C. Their Lordships after referring to the case in the earlier Calcutta cases and Rangoon case mentioned above held that `applying; is included in the word `acting' and a pleader who files an application on behalf of a party `acts' for him. This case also accepted the definition of the expression `act' in earlier case.

22. All these cases which define the expression `act' have so far carried it to mean presentation of application etc. but all at a stage prior to the startnesses (of course it would still be `acting; of the trial i.e. examination of the witness if an applicant is put in during or after the examination of witnesses. The substance is that examination of witnesses is treated as distinct from filing an application etc. which is covered by the word `acting'). No case other than the case decided by Teja Singh, J. (The Governor-General in Council's case Air 1948 Ep 61 and Jagat Narayan, J. Govind Narain's case Air 1966 Raj 170 has been brought to our notice where the expression `acting' has been held to include examination of the witnesses. In the case reported as Governor-General in Council, Air 1948 Ep 61 there is no discussion as to how the expression `act' is deemed to include the examination of witnesses. In Govind Narain's case Air 1966 Raj 170 it has been observed in support of the finding that the expression `act' includes examination of witnesses the fact that no pleader is allowed to examine or cross-examine the witnesses unless he files a Vakalatnama and, thereforee, it should be assumed that examination of witnesses is covered by the expression `acting'. With great respect, no rule is pointed out which specifically requires the filing of a power of attorney by an advocate for the purpose of examination of witnesses. The fact that the practice may be that the advocate files pore of attorney for examination of witnesses does not answer the question that the practice may be that the advocate files power of attorney for examination of witnesses does not answer the question that we are to decide in the present reference. It may be that the power of attorney is filed on the assumption that examination of witnesses is covered by the expression `acting' and, thereforee, as required by Order 3, Rule 4 (1), Civil P.C. a power of attorney is necessary. It is, thereforee, not, with respect, right in basing a decision on this practice which assumes that the expression `acting' covers the examination of witnesses.

23. One of the reasons also mentioned in Govind Narain's case Air 1966 Raj 170 to hold that the expression `acting' including examination of witnesses is by reference to S. 119 of the Code of Civil Procedure. It is suggested that S. 119 of the Code of Civil Procedure makes a distinction between `addressing the Court' and `examining witnesses' and thereforee, it means that the expression `pleading' does not cover both `arguing' and `examination of witnesses'. With respect, again this conclusion does not necessarily follow, Simply because the legislature has used the word `addressing the court' and `examination of witnesses', it is not determinative of the fact whether the word `pleading' cover both the eventualities. In any case the controversy is about the expression `acting' and whether it includes `examination of witnesses'. If `examination of witnesses' is not covered by the word `acting' it does not really matter whether the word `pleading' should be restricted to `argument' only or also to `examination of witnesses'. Moreover it is to be seen that Section 119 of the Code is only confined to the High Court and obviously any reference to it would be of any help in the matter before the subordinate courts.

24. Bawa Shivchandran Singh in support of his contention that `acting' includes examination of witnesses referred to Rule (c) of Chapter I of Part Vi of the Rules governing Advocates, which lays down the restrictions on senior advocates and pointed out that Rule (c) prohibits a senior advocate from giving `advice on evidence'. The submission of Bawa Shivcharan Singh was that as this Rule prohibited a senior Advocate from `giving advice on evidence' it necessarily suggested that he cannot examine witnesses as according to him this expression covers `the examination of witnesses'. He also submitted that the prohibition of giving `advice on evidence' shows that the senior advocate was not to have anything to do with the trial and, thereforee, necessarily was debarred from examination of the witnesses. In our view this contention is without any merit. On the other hand the expression `advice on evidence' is an expression which is used for a stage prior to the start of the trail. In all litigations after the pleadings have been settled and issues struck an interval is provided to determine what evidence should be laid at the trial. It is this work which is called `advice of evidence' and which is not to be performed by a senior advocate. Orders' `Principles of Pleading and Practice' 14th Edition deals with `Advice on Evidence' in Chapter 19, page 256. It is stated therein:-

'As soon as discovery is completed, or in urgent cases even sooner, the papers are laid before counsel for his advice on evidence. This should be done by both sides, even in cases apparently simple, otherwise the action may be lost for want of some certificate or other formal piece of proof'.

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'Advising on evidence is, perhaps, the most important piece of work which a junior barrister has to do; success at the trial so much depends on the care with which the case is got up beforehand and the solicitor, who may have had but little experience in litigious work, will look to counsel for advice on every necessary detail'.

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'It may be necessary to apply to postpone the trial, eg., to secure the attendance of witnesses who are ill or absent abroad'.

25. The `trial' is treated separately from a stage prior to that which is called `advice on evidence' as is clear from the treatment in this book which mentions the `trial' in Chapter 20, page 269 separately.

26. The specific prohibition on senior advocate is giving `advice on evidence' in Rule (c) of the Rules Governing Advocates rather bring out clearly the fact that examination of witnesses is not covered by the expression `acting'. This is so because if the word `acting', was to cover the stage of examination of witnesses it would necessarily have covered the stage prior to that, namely `advice on evidence' . In that case it would have not been necessarily to place this restriction in Rule (c) when senior advocate had already been prohibited from `acting' by Rule (a) of the Rules Governing Advocates. It is quite obvious, thereforee, that the Bar Council when placing a restriction on a senior advocate nor to `act' in any court was not contemplating to place restriction on him at the trial stage, namely the examination of the witnesses. Similarly the Explanationn given in Rule (a) of the Rules and the Explanationn given in Rule 2(b), Order 4 of the Supreme Court Rules also indicate that the restriction on a senior advocate to `act' is being restricted to the acts of filing, pleading or like applications and similar actions.

27. Even form the point of view of practical working it seems to us that if the expression `acting' was to include the examination of witnesses it will virtually debar the senior advocates from all original work. It is not unusual for courts to hear arguments immediately on the conclusion of evidence if it was to be held that senior advocates cannot examine witnesses they would obviously not be in a position to argue the matter if the arguments were to be heard immediately after the evidence of the witnesses was concluded. We do not think that it was meant to place such serious restrictions on the rights of senior advocates. It should also be appreciated that examination of witnesses is really presenting and pleading the case of the parties through the mouths of the witnesses. Arguments are only a summary and a condensed form of the case that has been pleaded already by evidence. To deprive a party of the benefit of a senior advocate when his real case is being put forward before the court would be to place the litigant public at a serious disadvantage and the law profession under a serious and unnecessary strain.

28. As was indicated by Samvatsar, J. in Panna Lal's case Air 1955 MadBha 109 many complicated legal and technical matters arise during the course of the evidence and if they were to be permitted to be done by persons other than advocates (as they would be if the examination of witnesses was included in the expression `acting' it will seriously interfere with the proper functioning of the courts which would be deprived of the assistance of the advocates at precisely the time it was required. In our view, the decision of Teja Singh, J. and Jagat Narayan, J. have taken too narrow a view of the expression `acting' and, with respect, do not lay down the correct law. We thank that the correct interpretation of the expression `acting' as not including, examination of the witnesses as held in the Panna Lal's case, Air 1955 Mad Bha 109 & Aswin Shambbuprasad's case, : AIR1955Bom262 is correct one. We, thereforee, hold that the senior advocate is not prevented from examination and cross examination of the witnesses as the same are not covered in the expression `acting' , In that view of the matter Mr. Sawhney who was a senior advocate was competent to examine and cross examine the witnesses and the decision of the Sub ordinate Judge who held to the contrary, thereforee, cannot be upheld and is set aside.

29. The result is this revision petition is accepted and the matter is sent back to the trial court to proceed in accordance with law and in accordance with the observations made above. The parties through their counsel are directed to appear before the Subordinate Judge on 23rd September. The civil revision is allowed with costs.

30. Revision allowed.


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