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Govindammal Vs. Marimuthu Maistry and ors. - Court Judgment

LegalCrystal Citation
SubjectCivil
CourtChennai High Court
Decided On
Case NumberAppeal No. 9 of 1954
Judge
Reported inAIR1959Mad7; (1958)IIMLJ34
ActsCode of Civil Procedure (CPC) , 1908 - Order 3, Rule 4
AppellantGovindammal
RespondentMarimuthu Maistry and ors.
Appellant AdvocateT.M. Krishnaswami Ayyar, Amicus Curiae;R. Desikan, Adv.
Respondent AdvocateR. Subramaniam and Sankara Rao, Adv.
DispositionAppeal dismissed
Cases ReferredUnited States v. Beebe
Excerpt:
civil - compromise - order 3 rule 4 of code of civil procedure, 1908 - compromise of suit by 'vakil' challenged by plaintiff-client - 'vakil' had power to enter compromise unless it is revoked by client - 'vakil' ought to consult client before entering into compromise - 'vakil' consulted plaintiff's father who was carrying out litigation on her behalf - compromise was advantageous to plaintiff - such compromise binding on plaintiff - challenge dismissed. - - she cannot be allowed to enjoy the advantages conferred under one decree and refuse to abide by the agreement under another decree. from the point of view of the client, we think that it is not safe that he should be regarded by engaging a vakil to have given him authority to dispose of, his rights in any way he chooses......ramaswami, j.1. this appeal is directed against the decree and judgment of the learned subordinate judge of cuddalore in o. s. no 40 of 1952.2. the facts are: the plaintiff govindammal filed two suits in the chidambaram district munsif's court, o. s. nos.151 of 1950 and 180 of 1950, relating to two sets of properties against marimuthu maistri, the first defendant, and others. after the said suits came on for trial, the parties reported a settlement of both the suits. an endorsement was made on the plaints in both the suits whereby the parties agreed to allow the plaintiff to have a decree in respect of the properties in o. s. no. 180 of 1950 and the claim in o. s. no. 151 of 1950 was allowed to be dismissed without costs.the plaintiff's father has attested the endorsements, as he was.....
Judgment:

Ramaswami, J.

1. This appeal is directed against the decree and judgment of the learned Subordinate Judge of Cuddalore in O. S. No 40 of 1952.

2. The facts are: The plaintiff Govindammal filed two suits in the Chidambaram District Munsif's Court, O. S. Nos.151 of 1950 and 180 of 1950, relating to two sets of properties against Marimuthu Maistri, the first defendant, and others. After the said suits came on for trial, the parties reported a settlement of both the suits. An endorsement was made on the plaints in both the suits whereby the parties agreed to allow the plaintiff to have a decree in respect of the properties in O. S. No. 180 of 1950 and the claim in O. S. No. 151 of 1950 was allowed to be dismissed without costs.

The plaintiff's father has attested the endorsements, as he was admittedly looking after her interests. The vakil for the plaintiff also signed the endorsements and consented to the dismissal of O. S. No. 151 of 1950. On the ground that the vakil had no authorisation to enter into any compromise and that her father was also not her authorised agent, this Govindammal filed a review application for setting aside the order of dismissal of the suit O. S. No. 151 of 1950 in the Chidambaram District Munsif's Court itself. That was not prosecuted and went by default. She subsequently filed an appeal in the District Court out of time.

The application for excusing delay was dismissed. Thereafter she has filed this suit to have the decree in O. S. No. 151 of 1950 set aside. The learned Subordinate Judge came to the conclusion that the suit for partially setting aside the compromise was devoid of merits and secondly, that in fact the vakil had power to enter into the compromise and that even if there is no express authority to enter into the compromise, under the inherent authority impliedly given to the vakil, he had the power to enter into the compromise on behalf of the party. Therefore, he dismissed the suit. Hence this appeal.

That on merits this plaintiff has no case can admit of no doubt whatsoever. O. S. Nos. 151 of 1950 and 180 of 1950 were simultaneously compromised. The compromise in respect of both the suits was part and parcel of the same transaction, each forming the consideration for the other. The plaintiff now wants to retain the advantage of the decree in O. S. No. 180 of 1950 and also wants to reopen the claim made by her in O. S. No. 151 of 1950, which was negatived under the compromise. She cannot be allowed to approbate and reprobate.

If she elects to stand by the compromise, she must agree to the same in its entirety. She cannot be allowed to enjoy the advantages conferred under one decree and refuse to abide by the agreement under another decree. There are no merits in her claim.

In this case the vakalat filed in O. S. No. 151 of 1950 has been exhibited as Ex. A. 1 and that vakalat shows that the vakil had power to sign the compromise and also withdraw the suit. ('Rajeenama Kaiyezhuttu | Shaiyyavum Wapees Wangavum').

It was strenuously contended before the learned Subordinate Judge that even in cases where the vakalat authorised the counsel to enter into a compromise, he has no right to enter into any settlement without the consent and approval of the plaintiff. In this connection the larger question was raised, viz., the powers of vakils to enter into compromise, even if not expressly authorised in that behalf.

3. The following authorities and extracts from standard publications on professional conduct, have been brought to my notice :

(1) Jagapati v. Ekambara Mudaliar, ILR 21 Mad 274 (A), (Subramania Iyer and Benson JJ.):

'It is not competent to a pleader to enter into a compromise on behalf of his client without his express authority to do so.' At page 276 it is stated thus: 'Moreover so far as the Presidency is concerned it has been hitherto tacitly understood by all that a vakil has no implied authority to enter into a compromise on behalf of his client, as is manifest from the practice of the courts which invariably insist upon the production of special authority from the client expressing consent to the compromise entered into on his behalf by the vakil before the compromise is accepted by the court.' (2) Kollipara Venkamma, In re, 23 Mad LJ. 381 (B), (Sadasiva Aiyar J.):

'A vakil in India is both the Solicitor who acts and the counsel who pleads. Where the vakalat given to the vakil in a case empowered him to compromise the suit no second or special vakalat is necessary to empower him to compromise it.' (3) Thenal Ammal v. Sokkammal, ILR (1918) Mad 233; AIR 1918 Mad 656 (C), (Seshagiri Aiyar and Kumaraswami Sastriar JJ.) :--

'A vakalat containing a provision authorising the vakil to present if necessary petitions for razinama for withdrawal and for referring to arbitration and to sign the razinama etc., petitions' does not give authority to the vakil to enter into a compromise without reference to his clients.' At page 235 (of ILR Mad) : (at p. 657 of AIR):

'It is not the ordinary duty of an Advocate to negotiate terms, without reference to his client, with the opposite party. Such an action is calculated to place the practitioner in a false position. We do not think it is desirable that such a power should vest in him in the interest of the profession. From the point of view of the client, we think that it is not safe that he should be regarded by engaging a vakil to have given him authority to dispose of, his rights in any way he chooses. Therefore we think that the general power claimed is not in consonance with the highest ideals of the profession or of justice. For these reasons we think that a very strict interpretation should be placed upon vakalat containing powers of this kind.' (4) Muthiah Chetti v. Karuppan Chetti, 53 Mad LJ 606: AIR 1927 Mad 852 (D), (Kumaraswami Sastri and Devadoss JJ). After a discussion of authorities, the judgment lays down at page 617 (of Mad LJ) : (at pp. 858-859 of AIR), the following propositions :

(1) .....

(2) A counsel has authority to confess judgment, withdraw or compromise, or refer to arbitration the suit in which fie is instructed if his doing so is for his client's advantage or benefit even though he has no express authority from his client.

(3) A counsel cannot without express authority agree to compromise or refer to arbitration matters unconnected with the subject matter of the suit in which he is instructed.

(4) .....

(5).....

(6) A counsel has no power to make an admission in, or compromise or refer to arbitration, a suit if he is instructed not to do so without express authority from his client.'

(5) Viswanathan Chettiar v. Appa Naicken, : AIR1943Mad672 , (Horwill J.):--

'An advocate in India has the same implied authority to compromise as he has in England. If it appears from the terms of the vakalatnama executed by the client in favour of his advocate that ho did not intend to authorise him to compromise, then there would be no implied authority. It is also probably true that where it is clear that under the vakalat itself there is no express authority to compromise, no authority could be implied.

Where a vakalat form usual in the Madras Presidency was used containing the following clause 'I execute this vakalatnama with consent agreeing to accept all the proceedings (conducted) by you therein as if done by me personally,' on a contention that the Advocate acting under such a vakalat-nama had no authority to compromise.

Held : that although it might be difficult to say that the clause unequivocally authorised the advocate to compromise, yet in construing such a clause, it was not unreasonable to bear in mind that Advocates ordinarily have such an authority and to assume that the clause was intended to embody that authority, which in the absence of a vakalatnama would be implied that the advocate concerned had the necessary authority to compromise.'

(6) Ramapaya v. Subbamma : (1947)2MLJ580 , (Gentle C. J. and Tyagarajan J. ) :

In a vakalatnama conferring in detail six separate distinct powers, the absence of a power or direction to compromise was not without significance.

582 (of Mad LJ) : (at p. 100 of AIR): He (the Advocate) had no express authority to effect a compromise, but solely to contest the suit. In those circumstances no implied authority arises or can be deemed to have been conferred upon him to make a compromise which was binding upon his client.'

(7) Nundo Lal Bose v. Nistarini Dassi, ILR 27 Cal 428 (G), 438 :

'There cannot, I think, be any reasonable doubt at the present day that counsel possesses a general authority, an apparent authority, which must be taken to continue until notice be given to the other side by the client that it has been determined to settle and compromise the suit in which he is actually retained as counsel, and in the exercise of his discretion to do that which ho considers best for the interest of his client in the conduct of the particular case in which he is so retained.' (8) In B. N. Sen and Bros. v. Chunnilal Dutt and Co. : AIR1924Cal651 , Sanderson C. J. and Richardson, J. :--

'The authority of counsel at the trial of an action extends, when it is not expressly limited, to the action and all matters incidental to it; the consent of the client is not needed for a matter which is within the ordinary authority of counsel, and, therefore if a compromise is entered into by counsel in the absence of the client, the client is hound.' In this case, the learned counsel settled the suit on his own responsibility -- page 652, 654 : Per Richardson J :

'I have always understood that a learned coun-sel has, in the usual course, full authority in the exercise of his judgment and discretion, to settle or compromise a case on behalf of the client for whom he appears.' (9) Askaran v. E. I. Rly. : AIR1925Cal696 , (Page J.)

'An advocate of me High Court in the course of conducting the cause is clothed with authority to compromise a suit in which he has been retained as counsel and such a compromise would be valid and binding upon the parries even though it had been effected contrary to the express instructions of the client unless the prohibition has previously been communicated to the other side.'

698: 'I am unable to subscribe to the doctrine that the status of an advocate of the Calcutta High Court differs from that of a barrister in England. Now it is not unfrequently that the relation of a client to his counsel is that of a principal to an agent. In truth the relationship is of a very different nature.'

700 : 'It is in my opinion settled law that an advocate of the High Court in the course of conducting the cause is clothed with authority to compromise a suit in which he has been retained as counsel.'

(10) In Nilmoni Choudhuri v. Kedarnath Daga, AIR 1922 Pat 232 (J), 234:

'Two propositions are well-settled; first, that express authority is not needed for a counsel to enter into a compromise within the scope of the suit; and secondly, that where there is limitation of authority and that limitation is communicated to the other side, consent by counsel outside the limits of his authority would be of no effect.' (11) Tang Bahadur v. Shankar Rai, ILR 13 All 272 (FB) (K) :

'A counsel, unless his authority to act for hisclient is revoked and such revocation is notified to the opposite side, has, by virtue of his retainer and without need of further authority, full power to compromise a case on behalf of his client.' (12) Bholanath v. Pannalal, AIR 1947 All 382(L),

383 : 'It is too late in the day .... tocontend that a specific authority to compromise is necessary.' (13) Jiwibai v. Ramkumar, AIR 1947 Nag 17, (FB) (M):

25 : 'The authority to compromise is implicit in the appointment unless it is expressly countermanded, and that, whether there is express authority conferred by the power or not.' (14) Sarathakumari Dasi v. Amulyadhan, AIR 1923 P. C. 13 (N):

'It has been well established that a vakil appointed under a usual power of attorney is notendowed with power or Authority to compromise the suit he is thus retained to argue.' (15) Sourendranath Mitra v. Tarubala Dasi .

(16) Sheonandan Prasad Singh v. Abdul Fateh Muhammad . Counsel in India have the same implied authority to compromise the action as have counsel in the English courts.

(17) Supaji v. Nagorao Sakharam AIR 1954 Nag 250 (Q): Kaushalendra Rao and Deo JJ.:

'The authority to compromise is implicit in the appointment of an advocate unless it is expressly countermanded whether there is authority expressly conferred by the power or not. Similarly,a counsel's action in not prosecuting an appeal once filed because of a settlement is also included in his authority.' (18) Laxmidas Ranchhoddas v. Savitabai Hargovandas, : AIR1956Bom54 (R), Chagla C. J. and Desai J:

'A counsel or an advocate practising in India has implied authority to settle the suit of his client if he feels that a settlement will be in the interest of his client. This implied authority (which is sometimes described as actual authority) of an Advocate may be limited or restricted or even taken away. If a restriction is placed on the authority of an advocate, the implied or actual authority disappears or is destroyed. Then he has only an ostensible authority so far as the other side is concerned. When the implied or actual authority is destroyed or limited and merely ostensible authority remains, the court will not enforce a settlement when in fact the client had withdrawn or limited the authority of his advocate, even though the other side was unaware of the limitation put upon the advocate's authority.' (Neale v. Gordon Lennox, 1902 A.C. 465 (S); Shepherd v. Robinson. and , referred to.)

Mulla's Code of Civil Procedure, 12th Edn. at page 13 'Counsel and Advocate' --Counsel and Advocates have an implied authority to compromise in all matters connected with the action and not merely collateral to it , reversing Tarubala v. Sourendranath : AIR1925Cal866 . In Sourendranath v. Tarubala the Privy Council said that,

'their Lordships regard the power to compromise a suit as inherent in the position of an advocate in India'.

The Rangoon High Court has, however, held that a Barrister in Burma has no power to compromise without the express consent of his client: Desram v. Baswa Singh ILR 8 Rang 290 : (AIR 1930 Rang 313) (V), But the correct view is that counsel and advocates derive their authority from their retainer by reason of being briefed in the suit ; Matthews v. Munster, 1888-20 Q.B.D. 141 (W). Therefore the consent of a client is not needed for a matter which is within the implied authority of his counsel or advocate: ILR 1946 Nag 824 : (AIR 1947 Nag 17) (FB) (M); ILR 1947 All 706 : (AIR 1947 All 382) {L); 1888-20 Q.B.D. 141 (W); ILR 13 All 272 (K); Garrison v. Rodrigucs : AIR1924Cal651 .

The authority of counsel or advocate may, however, be expressly limited by the client. If such limitation is communicated to the other side, the consent of counsel outside the limits of his authority is of no effect: Jivibai v. Ramkumar (M), (supra); ILR 1948 Mad 647 : (AIR 1949 Mad 98) (F), Strauss v. Francis, (1866) 1 Q.B. 379 (Y), per Blackburn J. at page 382. Difficult questions however arise if the limitation has not been communicated to the other side and counsel consents in spite of dissent or on terms different to those his client authorised : 1919-1-K. B. 474 (T).

In some cases courts have refused to inquire if there is such a limitation : In re Hobler, 1844-8 Beav. 101 (Z); Mole v. Smith, 1820-1 Jack and W. 665 (Z-1) per Lord Eldon L. C. at page 673 and have refused to set aside a compromise entered into by counsel : 1866-1 Q.B. 379 (Y); Rumsey v. King, 1876-33 L.T. 728 (Z2). But the rule seems to be that the Court has power to interfere, and the House of Lords has held that the Court is not prevented by agreement of counsel from setting aside or refusing to enforce a compromise, that it is a matter for the discretion of the Court and that when in the particular circumstances of the case grave injustice would be done by allowing the compromise to stand, the compromise may be set aside even though the limitation of counsel's authority was unknown to the other side : 1902 A.C. 465 (S); Chunnilal v. Hiralal : AIR1928Cal378 . Similarly, if the consent is given under a misapprehension or mistake and the other party acts on the ostensible authority of counsel, the client will be bound.

But in such a case consent given under a misappropriation may be withdrawn and the compromise set aside if the application is made before the order is actually drawn up and perfected: Hickmon v. Berens, 1895-2-Ch. 638 (Z4); Wilding v. Sanderson, 1897-2 Ch. 534 (Z5); Hudersfield Banking Co. v. Lister, 1895-2 Ch. 273 (Z6); Bibee Solomon v. Abdool Azeez, ILR 6 Cal 687 at p. 706 (Z7); Kyone Hoe y. Kyon Soon Sun, ILR 3 Rang 261 : (AIR 1925 Rang 314) (Z8). The application to have the suit restored to the list should be made before the decree is sealed : Berry v. Mullen, 1871-5 Eq. 368 (Ir.) (Z9); ILR 13 All 272 (K); 13 Cal 115 (X). If the client is present in court, at the time of the compromise it is not open to him to say that he did not consent; for if he desires the case to go on and counsel refuses, and if after that, he does not withdraw his authority from counsel to act for him, he must be taken to have agreed: 1871-5 Eq. 368 (Ir) (Z9), ILR 13 All 272 (K) and ILR 13 Cal 115 (X).

4. Professional conduct and Advocacy by K.V. Krishnaswami Aiyar, 3rd Edn. pages 148 to 150:

Regarding the powers of counsel to make or accept a compromise on behalf of a client, Lord Atkin, delivering the judgment of the Privy Council in , explained the foundation and scope of such authority in the case of Advocates who derive their general authority to represent the client from being briefed on his behalf. He observed,

'Their Lordships regard the power to compromise a suit as inherent in the position of an Advocate in India. .... It is a power deemed to exist because its existence is necessary to effectuate the relations between advocate and client, to make possible the duties imposed upon the advocate by his acceptance of the cause of his client. The advocate is to conduct the cause of his client to the utmost of his skill & understanding. He must in the interest of his client, be in the position, hour by hour, almost minute by minute, to advance this argument, to withdraw that; he must make the final decision whether evidence is to be given or not on any question of fact; skill in advocacy is largely the result of discrimination.

These powers in themselves almost amount to powers of compromise; one point is given up that another may prevail. But, in addition to these duties, there is from time to time thrown upon the advocate the responsible task of deciding whether in the course of a case he shall accept an offer made to him, or on his part shall make an offer on his client's behalf to receive or pay something less than the full claim or the full responsible liability. Often the decision must be made at once. If further evidence is called or the advocate has to address thecourt the occasion for settlement will vanish. In such circumstances, if the advocate has no authority unless he consults his client, valuable opportunities are lost to the client.

Lord Atkin proceeded to emphasise that the authority is not 'an apanage of office, a dignity added by the courts to the status of Barrister or Advocate at law, but one implied in the interests of the client, to give the fullest beneficial effect to his employment of the Advocate, and he states the limitations of that authority in the form that 'the implied authority can always be countermanded by the express directions of the client' and 'no advocate has actual authority to settle a case against the express instructions of his client'.

The learned Judge then observed, however, that where the legal representative in court of a client derived his authority from an express written authority, such as a vakalatnama, different considerations might well arise, and that in such cases their Lordships expressed no opinion as to the existence of any implied authority of the kind under consideration.

'Having regard to the essential character of the power to make compromises, in the best interests of the administration of justice, it is a matter for consideration by the High Court whether the time has not arrived when larger discretion and greater responsibility should properly be vested in the present day Advocate. As pointed out by the Privy Council in the case above quoted considerations of a lack of confidence in the integrity and judgment of an Indian Advocate can no longer be advanced to refuse to place him on a level with the English Barrister, when he is now exercising every other power, short of this one, to make or consent to a compromise. He can bind his client by his admission, give up points, and do many other filings in the conduct of the case for which the sole sanction is the integrity of the Bar and its high moral character. It is also desirable that clients should in their own interests be educated to repose greater confidence in their representative in court.

'It would seem consonant with reason, therefore, that all advocates in this country who act under written authority should be trusted with the further privilege of making or consenting to a compromise on behalf of the client. The forms of Vakalatnama now prescribed for use in mofussil courts and the High Court do not contain any clause empowering counsel to do so. The authority of the advocate being written, there is no scope for inferring any implied authority though the written authority may be silent on the matter. The scope of the written authority should therefore be enlarged at the same time reserving liberty to the client to countermand this portion of the authority without putting an end to the general engagement, or to give express instructions on the matter to his advocate which, if the advocate does not see fit to conform to, he will have to avoid by returning the brief.'

Halsbury's Laws of England, (Simonds Edn) Vol. 3, Section 72:

'The authority of counsel at the trial of an action extends, when it is not expressly limited, to the action and all matters incidental to it and to the conduct of the trial such as withdrawing the record or a juror, calling or not calling witnesses, consenting to a reference, or a state processus, or a verdict, undertaking not to appeal, or on the hearing of a motion for a new trial consenting to the reduction of damages.

'The consent of the client is not needed for a matter which is within the ordinary authority of counsel, and, if a compromise is entered into by counsel in the absence of the client, the client isbound. If an action is settled in court in the presence of the client, his consent will be inferred, and he will not be heard to say that he did not understand what was going on. So when an arrangement was suggested, and the client's solicitor went and consulted the client, who was not in court, and returned, and afterwards the suggested arrangement was concluded by counsel, the consent of the client was inferred, and where a settlement was announced and an adjournment requested for classification of matters of detail, the client was bound although no document had been signed by counsel signifying that a settlement had been reached.

'The authority of counsel to compromise is limited to the issue in the action; and a compromise by counsel affecting collateral matters will not bind the client, unless he expressly assents.' (Swinfeen v. Chelmsford (Lord), 1860 5H & N. 890 (Z10), (1866) 1 QB 379 (Y), In re West Devon Great Consols Mines, 1888-38 Ch. D. 51 (Z11), 1887-20 Q. B. D. 141 (W), Chambers v. Mason. 1858-5 C. B. (N. S) 59 (Z 12), Porter v. Cooper, 1834-1 Cr. M. & R. 387 (Z13), In re Newer.; Curruthers v. Newen, 1903-1 Ch. 812 (Z14), 1918-1 K. B. 47-1, (T), Schwarz v. Clements, 1944-171 LT 305 (Z15).

5. American Jurisprudence Section 98 (pages 318-320) has the following to say:

'The rule is almost universal that an attorney who is clothed with no other authority than that arising from his employment in that capacity has no implied power by virtue of his general retainer to compromise and settle his client's claim or cause of action, United States v. Beebe (1901) 180 U. Section 343 (Z16), Holker v. Parker (1813) 3 Law Ed 396 (Z17), Gloder v. Bradley (C. C. A. 4th) 233 F. 721 (Z18), Anneas, 1917 A 921 (219); In re Sonyder (1907) 190 N. Y. 66 (Z20), Ward v. Orsini 1929 243 N. Y. 123 (Z21), except in situations where he is confronted with an emergency and prompt action is necessary to protect the interests of the client and there is no opportunity for consultation with him. Generally, unless such an emergency exists, either precedent special authority from the client or subsequent ratification by him is essential in order that a compromise or settlement by an attorney shall be binding on his client.

Obviously, therefore, if a litigant instructs his attorney not to compromise his case, the attorney is bound by such instructions, even though he honestly believes that a compromise settlement would be to the best interest of his client. On the other hand, there can be no question but that an attorney may be specially authorised to enter into a compromise which will he binding on the client, though it has been held that an attorney employed to bring suit for damages or to settle by compromise is not authorised to compromise without first consulting his client, especially after suit has been started. Some cases hold that the authority of an attorney to compromise is presumed until the contrary is shown: United States v. Beebe (Z16); at least it is not to be presumed that this was done, without lawful authority, and slight evidence in such a case may be sufficient to authorise the belief that he was clothed with all the power he assumed to exercise.

'It has been held that a compromise settlement made in good faith by counsel, when sanctioned by the court in a decree, is binding upon the client.

'Statutes relative to the authority of an attorney touching the conduct of his client's cause of action have generally been held to effect no departure from the general rule that an attorney has no implied authority to compromise his client's claim. The general rule has been held to apply even though the client may be a resident of a distant State oris a municipality or other Government body. The general rule stated is now followed by the English courts, although the early tendency of these courts was apparently to recognise such powers.

'In some States the question as to the implied power of an attorney to agree to a compromise of his client's right of action out of court appears to be an open one, and in a few jurisdictions it has been held that an agreement of compromise by an attorney is binding on the client. In some cases this view finds support in a statute expressly providing that no action shall be maintained on a demand settled by a creditor or his attorney intrusted to collect it, in full discharge of it, by the receipt of money or other valuable consideration, however small.'

6. An examination of these authorities and extracts from standard publications on professional conduct, leads us to the following deductions: The decisions appear to be fairly clear that even in cases where there is no express authorisation to enter into a compromise under the inherent authority im-pliedly given to the Vakil he has power to enter into the compromise on behalf of his client. But in the present state of the clientele world and the position in which the Bar now finds itself and in the face of divided judicial authority and absence of statutory backing, prudence dictates that unless express power is given in the vakalat itself to enter into compromise, in accordance with the general practice obtaining, a special vakalat should be filed or the specific consent of the party to enter into the compromise should be obtained. If an endorsement is made on the plaint etc. it would be better to get the signature or the thumb impression of the party affixed thereto, making it evident that the parly is aware of what is being done by the vakil on his or her behalf.

7. In the instant case the compromise is unassailable, because the vakil had power to enter into the compromise and secondly, he has taken the precaution of associating with himself the father of this Govindammal who was looking after her court affairs and conducting the suits and the compromise itself was advantageous to her. She is now seeking only to get rid of what is not advantageous to her, retaining what is advantageous.

8. In the result, this appeal fails and is dismissed with costs.

9. I acknowledge my indebtedness to Messrs. R. Subramaniam and Desikan counsel in the case and Sri T. M. Krishnaswami Aiyar who appeared as Amicus Curiae who all spared no pains to place all aspects before me.


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