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S.B. Adityan Vs. S. Kandaswami and ors. - Court Judgment

LegalCrystal Citation
SubjectElection
CourtChennai High Court
Decided On
Reported in(1958)1MLJ61
AppellantS.B. Adityan
RespondentS. Kandaswami and ors.
Cases ReferredJagannath v. Jaswant Singh
Excerpt:
- - kandaswami, athimuthu, arunachalam and ramayya) as well as kosalram, ahmed sayeed meganathan and muthu, nine in all, filed their nominations for the election to the state assembly from sattankulam constituency of trirunelveli district. the penalty for failure to comply with the requirements of section 82(b) is the dismissal of the electon petition for which sections 85 and 90(3) provide. 1 of 1957 for a direction to dismiss the election petition under section 90(3) of the act on the ground, that failure to implead muthu and meganathan, who were candidates against whom the election petitioner had alleged commission of corrupt practices, constituted a contravention of the mandatory provisions of section 82(b). the first respondent, who was the election petitioner, opposed that.....order1. w. p. nos. 623, 624 and 799 of 1957.---these applications filed under article 226 of the constitution arose out of proceedings before the election tribunal, tirunelveli, in election petition no. 98 of 1957, in which the validity of the election of s. b. adityan was challenged. it should be convenient to refer to the parties as they have been arrayed in w. p. no. 623 of 1957 preferred by the returned candidate, adityan.2. the petitioner (s.b. adityan) and respondents 1 to 4 (s. kandaswami, athimuthu, arunachalam and ramayya) as well as kosalram, ahmed sayeed meganathan and muthu, nine in all, filed their nominations for the election to the state assembly from sattankulam constituency of trirunelveli district. kosalram and meganathan subsequently withdrew their nominations, and.....
Judgment:
ORDER

1. W. P. Nos. 623, 624 and 799 of 1957.---These applications filed under Article 226 of the Constitution arose out of proceedings before the Election Tribunal, Tirunelveli, in Election Petition No. 98 of 1957, in which the validity of the election of S. B. Adityan was challenged. It should be convenient to refer to the parties as they have been arrayed in W. P. No. 623 of 1957 preferred by the returned candidate, Adityan.

2. The petitioner (S.B. Adityan) and respondents 1 to 4 (S. Kandaswami, Athimuthu, Arunachalam and Ramayya) as well as Kosalram, Ahmed Sayeed Meganathan and Muthu, nine in all, filed their nominations for the election to the State Assembly from Sattankulam Constituency of Trirunelveli district. Kosalram and Meganathan subsequently withdrew their nominations, and three others, respondent 4 (Ramayya), Muthu and Ahmed Sayeed retired from the contest. The petitioner and respondents 1 to 3 went to polls on 4th March, 1957, and on 6th March, 1957 and the petitioner was declared elected. The first respondent, Kandaswami, filed an election petition on 15th April, 19579 to avoid the election of the petitioner, Adityan. In that petition only four of the nominated candidates were impleaded as respondents. Among the candidates not impleaded were Muthu and Meganathan.

3. The averments in sub-paragraphs 2 and 4 of paragraph IV-A of the election petition filed by the first respondent were:

IV-A (2).--Sri M.R. Meganathan was candidate for Sattankulam and Tiruchendur Assembly Constituencies at the election. The first respondent (S. B. Adityan) and his election agent paid him a gift of Rs. 10,000 to induce him to withdraw from being a candidate at the election from Sattankulam Constituency and in pursuance thereof Sri M.R. Meganathan withdrew his candidature at the election from Sattankulam Constituency.

* * * * * *(4) One Sri G.E. Muthu, a candidate at the election in this constituency, was paid a gratification of Rs. 5,000 by the first respondent (Sri S.B. Adityan) and his election agent for the purpose of making him retire from the contest and in pursuance thereof he retired from the contest.

4. The Representation of the People Act (XLIII of 1951) hereinafter referred to as the Act was amended to a considerable extent by Act (XXVII of 1956). Section 82(b) of the Act so amended runs:

A petitioner shall join as respondents to his petition

* * * * * *(b) any other candidate against whom allegations of any corrupt practice are made in the petition.

The penalty for failure to comply with the requirements of Section 82(b) is the dismissal of the electon petition for which Sections 85 and 90(3) provide. The Election Commission had no occasion to decide whether the election petition was liable to be dismissed under Section 85 of the Act. Before the Election Tribunal the petitioner filed I.A. No. 1 of 1957 for a direction to dismiss the election petition under Section 90(3) of the Act on the ground, that failure to implead Muthu and Meganathan, who were candidates against whom the election petitioner had alleged commission of corrupt practices, constituted a contravention of the mandatory provisions of Section 82(b). The first respondent, who was the election petitioner, opposed that application, and in his turn he filed I.A. No. 3 of 1957 to amend the election petition by impleading Muthu and Meganathan. The Tribunal dismissed both the applications.

5. The petitioner, the returned candidate, preferred W.P. No. 623 of 1957 for the issue of a writ of certiorari to set aside the order of the Tribunal in I.A. No. 1 of 1957, and also W. P. No. 624 of 1957 for the issue of prohibition to restrain the Tribunal from proceeding further with the enquiry into the election petition, which the petitioner alleged was liable to be dismissed under the mandatory provision of Section 90(3) of the Act.

6. Kandaswami, the election petitioner and the first respondent in W.P. Nos. 623 and 624 of 1957, preferred W.P. No. 799 of 1957 for the issue of a writ of certiorari to set aside the order of the Tribunal in I.A. No. 3 of 1957.

7. All the petitions were heard together with a view to dispose of them by a single order. As we have already pointed out, it should be convenient to refer to the parties as they were arrayed in W.P. No. 623 of 1957.

8. Did the failure of the first respondent to implead Muthu and Meganathan as respondents to the election petition constitute a contravention of Section 82(b) of the Act was the question which the Tribunal had to decide. It arose for determination again in these proceedings before us. Muthu and Meganathan were certainly ' candidates' as defined by Section 79 (b) of the Act. They were candidates against whom also the first respondent made allegations in the election petition that he filed. What Section 82(b) further requires is that they must be allegations of corrupt practices committed by each of these two candidates, Muthu and Meganathan. In our opinion, the expression ' any.... candidate against whom allegations of any corrupt practice are made ' is to be construed as ' any candidate who is alleged to have committed corrupt practices.' There is no scope for importing any concept of vicarious liability under Section 82(b) as it stands.

9. Apart from the allegations in the petition of what the petitioner and his election agent did, the allegation in paragraph IV-A (2) in effect, was that Meganathan accepted a gift of Rs. 10,000 and ' in pursuance thereof withdrew his candidature '. A similar allegation in paragraph IV-A (4) was to the effect, that Muthu accepted a gratification of Rs. 5,000 and ' in pursuance thereof he retired from the contest '. Did such acceptance constitute a ' corrupt practice ' as defined by the Act is therefore the real question for determination in these proceedings.

10. The definition of 'corrupt practice ' in Section 2(c) of the Act only takes us to Section 123(1) the relevant portion of which runs:

The following shall be deemed to be corrupt practices for the purposes of this Act:

(1) Bribery, that is to say, any gift, offer or promise by a candidate or his agent or by any other person, of any gratification to any person whomsoever, with the object, directly or indirectly of inducing,

(a) a person to stand or not to stand as or to withdraw from being a candidate or to retire from contest, at an election;

We shall omit Sub-clause (b) and the Explanation to Section 123(1) as the terms thereof may not arise for consideration in these proceedings.

11. The first contention of Mr. Nambiar, the learned Counsel for the petitioner, was that on the language of Section 123(1)(a) receipt of a bribe by a candidate who either withdrew his candidature or retired from the contest was as much a corrupt practice as the act of giving a bribe. The learned Counsel urged that the giving and the acceptance of a gift constituted a single transaction. He referred to the observations of Lord Esher, M.R., in Cockrane v. Moore L.R. 25 Q.B.D. 57:

The proposition before the Court on a question of gift or not is--that the one gave and the other accepted. The transaction described in the proposition is a transaction begun and completed at once. It is a transaction consisting of two contemporaneous acts, which at once complete the transaction so that there is nothing more to be done by either party. The act done by the one is that he gives ; the act done by the other is that he accepts. These contemporaneous acts being done neither party has anything more to do. The one cannot give, according to the ordinary meaning of the word, without giving ; the other cannot accept then and there such a giving without then and there receiving the thing given.

The further submission of the learned Counsel for the petitioner was that when Section 123(1)(a) labeled bribery as such a corrupt practice and defined bribery to include any gift, the expression ' gift ' included both the giving of the gift and the acceptance of that gift.

12. The legislative practice in India, which followed to a considerable extent the legislative practice in England, in relation to the law of bribery as a corrupt practice at election by itself, compels the rejection of the construction of the expression ' bribery ' in Section 123(1)(a) of the Act for which Mr. Nambiar pleaded. Though giving and acceptance are necessary to constitute a gift and the gift itself is bribery, the law has always made a distinction between the person who gives the bribe and the person who accepts the bribe. They are distinct acts, they have always been treated as such, and separate penalties have been attached to each such act.

13. The English Act of 1854 (17 and 18 Vic. G. II) dealt with a giver in Sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 2, and in Sub-section (4) it dealt separately with the person who accepted the gift. So also did Sub-sections (1) and (2) of Section 3. In the Representation of People Act, 1949, (12 and 13 Geo. 6, Gh. 68) Section 92 provided separately for the person who gave the gift and the person who received the gift. Section 92 ran:

Any person who corruptly induces or procures any other person to withdraw from being a. candidate at an election, in consideration of any payment or promise of payment, and any person withdrawing in pursuance of the inducement or procurement, shall be guilty of an illegal payment.

Section 99 of the English Act of 1949 defined the persons who were guilty of bribery with reference to a voter. Sub-sections (2) and (3) dealt with a person who gave, and Sub-sections (5) and (6) dealt with a voter who received the gift.

14. With reference to Section 25 of the Ballot Act (35 and 36, Vic, C. 33) Lord Coleridge, C.J., observed in Malcolm v. Parry L.R. 9 C.P. page 610 at 616:

It must be remembered that we are dealing with a state of the law which makes bribery complete so far as the bribe is concerned without acceptance of the bribe by the voter, and that a corrupt receipt of the bribe is a separate and independent offence.

15. The Indian Penal Code dealt with offences including offences relating, to elections. Section 161, Indian Penal Code, provided for the punishment only of the person who accepted a bribe. The Illustration to Section 109, Indian Penal Code, explained that a person who offered a bribe, abetted the commission of the offence defined in Section 161, Indian Penal Code, the offence defined in Section 161, Indian Penal Code, is only acceptance of the bribe. Section 171-B, Indian Penal Code, provided separately for the person who gave the bribe and for the person who accepted the bribe ; each was guilty of bribery as defined by Section 171-B, Indian Penal Code.

16. An even clearer light is thrown on the subject by the statutory changes in the Act, the Representation of the People Act (XLIII of 1951) made by the Amending Act (XXVII of 1956). As the Act stood before it was amended in 1956, corrupt practices, which included bribery were dealt with in Sections 123 and 124.' The classification was into major corrupt practices which were included in Section 123 and minor corrupt practices which formed the subject-matter of Section 124. Section 123(1)(a) of the Act before amendment ran:

The following shall be deemed to be corrupt practices for purposes of this Act:

(1) Bribery that is to say, any gift, offer or promise by a candidate or his agent or by any other person with the connivance of a candidate or his agent of any gratification to any person whomsoever with the object, directly or indirectly, of inducing

(a) a person to stand or not to stand as, or to withdraw from being, a candidate at an election.

That constituted what was called a major corrupt practice. It should be fairly clear that what constituted a major corrupt practice under Section 123(1)(a) was-the gift, offer or promise by a candidate or his agent, or by any other person with the connivance of a candidate or his agent. It was the act of giving by this class, of persons that constituted a major corrupt practice. The act of giving was also dealt with, but as a minor corrupt practice, in Section 124(1) of the Act, when the giving was by a person who was not a candidate or his agent or a person acting with the connivance of a candidate or his agent. In both cases, the receipt was dealt with separately under Section 124(3) of the Act as a minor corrupt practice. The relevant portion of Section 124 ran:

The following shall be deemed to be corrupt practices for purposes of this Act

* * * * * *(3) the receipt or agreement to receive, any gratification whether as a motive or a reward(a) by a person for standing or not standing as, or for withdrawing from being, a candidate;

17. It should be noted that before the Act was amended in 1956, there was no distinction between withdrawing a nomination and retiring from the contest. Both were within the scope of the expression ' withdrawing from being a candidate '' in Section 124(3)(a). As the learned Advocate-General explained, the position before the Act was amended in 1956 was this. What could be called the 'group of' givers' of gifts was dealt with in Sections 123(1) and 124(1) and consisted of (1) the; candidate, (2) his agent, (3) any other person who made the gift with the connivance: of the candidate or his agent, and (4) any other person who made the gift not included in the categories (1) to (3) mentioned above. The person who received the gift or bribe was dealt with separately in Section 124(3) of the Act as guilty of a minor corrupt practice. That made it clear that the person who accepted the bribe was not included within the scope of Section 123(1) or Section 124(1) of the Act. A gift must be by one person to another. The other person, that is the person who received the gift, was dealt with only under Section 124(3) of the Act., That section now stands repealed. We have already set out the provisions of Section 123(1)(a) as they were amended by Act XXVII of 1956. The noticeable changes are that the 'giver group' has all been brought into Section 123(1) instead of being split up between Section 123(1) and Section 124(1) which was the position under the Act before it was amended. The expression ' any other person ' as it now stands in Section 123(1) as amended includes the two classes dealt with-separately in the unamended Act (1) any other person (who made the gift) with the connivance of a candidate or his agent--dealt with in Section 123(1) and (2) any other person who made the gift, dealt with in Section 124(1) of the amended Act. The further change is that Section 123(1) as it now stands amended dispensed with the requirement of connivance of a candidate or his agent for the gift by any person other than a candidate or his agent to constitute bribery. These changes,. in our opinion, cannot enlarge the scope of Section 123(1) as it now stands to include within it both the giving and the acceptance of a bribe. When the Parliament repealed Section 124(3), which treated the acceptance of the bribe as something distinct from giving of a bribe and treated the acceptance of a bribe-as only a minor corrupt practice, it is difficult to accept the proposition of Mr. Nambiar, that the Parliament intended to put the giving of a bribe and the acceptance of a bribe on a par and include both in the expression ' gift ' in Section 123(1)(a) of the Act as amended. It is certainly permissible in construing the scope of an amended provision of an Act to examine what the law was before it was amended. At the risk of repetition we have to-point out that the law on the subject before it was amended in 1956 kept alive the distinction between a person who gave the gift and the person who received the gift. After the amendment when, the gift as such is defined as bribery, it seems to us to be clear that the Parliament intended only the giving of the gift to constitute bribery and a corrupt practice, and not the other aspect of the transaction,, the acceptance of the gift.

18. We have already pointed out that connivance of a candidate or his election agent has been dispensed with in denning bribery as a corrupt practice in Section 123(1)(a) of the Act. But it is not every corrupt practice that is within the scope of Section 100(1)(b) of the Act, which alone governs the avoidance of the election of the returned candidate. The relevant portion of Section 100(1)(b) runs:.If the Tribunal is of opinion

* * * * * *(b) that any corrupt practice has been committed by a returned candidate or his election agent or by any other person with the consent of a returned candidate or his election agent;

* * * * * *the Tribunal shall declare the election of the returned candidate to be void.

It is not necessary for us to examine in these proceedings the difference between connivance and consent. Section 100(1)(b) does not enlarge the scope of the definition of bribery, which is to be found in Section 123(1)(a). What Section 100(1)(b) still requires is proof that a corrupt practice has been committed. by a returned candidate or his election agent or by any other person. If, as we have pointed out earlier, Section 123)(1)(a) excludes the acceptance of a gift from the scope of bribery as defined by that Sub-section, the provisions of Section 100(1)(b) cannot help the petitioner to establish that acceptance as such will constitute bribery as defined by the Act. We did not understand the learned Counsel to put forward such a contention.

19. To sum up this portion of the case, we are clearly of the opinion that the acceptance of a bribe by a candidate from a returned candidate or his agent does not constitute by itself bribery as defined by Section 123(1)(a) of the Act, and the candidate who accepted such a bribe did not commit a corrupt practice within the meaning of Section 123 of the Act.

20. The next contention of the learned Counsel for the petitioner was that Section 82(b), which referred to a candidate against whom any allegations of corrupt practice are made, would also include within its scope candidates against whom allegation of abetment of any corrupt practice are made. The learned Counsel urged that even if acceptance of bribe did not by itself constitute a corrupt practice within the meaning of Section 123 of the Act, acceptance of the bribe would constitute abetment of the giving of the bribe, and certainly a corrupt practice within the meaning of Section 123 of the Act. It should be remembered that it was byway of illustration that Section 109, Indian Penal Code explained that a person who gave the bribe was guilty of the offence punishable under Section 161, Indian Penal Code that offence itself being the acceptance of a bribe. It is not necessary for us to pronounce any concluded opinion of ours on the question, whether acceptance of bribe would constitute abetment of the commission of a corrupt practice as defined by Section 123 of the Act. The commission of an offence and the abetment of the commission of the offence are distinct legal concepts. When the law intends to punish a person for abetment of an offence, specific provision is made therefore. There is no such express provision in Section 123 of the Act or in any other provision of the Act. Abetment as such, even if it is established, does not, in our opinion come within the scope of Section 82(b) of the Act, which deals with only allegations of the commission of corrupt practices.

21. We have to consider next the third line of argument of the learned Counsel for the petitioner. That was principally based on the language of Section 99 of the Act. That deals with what is familiarly known as ' naming '. The relevant portion of Section 99(1) runs:

At the time of making an order under Section 98 the Tribunal shall also make an order:

(a) where any charge is made in the petition of any corrupt practice having been committed at the election, recording

(i) a finding whether any corrupt practice has or has not been proved to have been committed by, or with the consent of, any candidate or his agent at the election, and the nature of that corrupt practice ; and

(ii) the names of all persons, if any, who have been proved at the trial to have been guilty of any corrupt practice and the nature of that practice:

Provided that a person who is not a party to the petition shall not be named in the order under Sub-clause (ii) of Clause (a) unless

(a) he has been given notice to appear before the Tribunal and to show cause why he should not be so named ; and

(b) if he appears in pursuance of the notice, he has been given an opportunity of cross-examining any witness who has already been examined by the Tribunal and has given evidence against him, of calling evidence, in his defense and of being heard.

22. Mr. Nambiar's arguments were as follows : Even if the giving of a gift alone constituted bribery and a corrupt practice, and the person who receives the bribe is not himself a person who committed a corrupt practice as defined by Section 123 of the Act, the person who receives the bribe is one who by the very acceptance of that bribe gives his consent to the commission of the corrupt practice that is, to giving of the bribe. Muthu and Meganathan were alleged to have accepted bribes given by the returned candidate and his election agent. Muthu and Meganathan were themselves candidates. The allegation was to the effect that they consented to the commission of the corrupt practice by the petitioner and his agent. , Therefore, if the truth of the allegations be established, Muthu and Meganathan were persons liable to be named under the provisions of Section 99(1) of the Act. The finding could then be that a corrupt practice has been committed by the petitioner or his agent and or with the consent of Muthu and Meganathan. The use of the expression 'any candidate' in Section 99(1)(a)(i) was sufficient to include Muthu and Meganathan. If there was such a liability to be named, the candidates in this case, Muthu and Meganathan, would come within the scope of Section 82(b) of the Act.

23. We are unable to accept the contention, that the liability to be named under Section 99 of the Act is a test for determining either the scope of Section 82(b) or the scope of Section 123(1)(a) of the Act. We do not consider it necessary to decide the question, whether if the allegations made by the election petitioner, the first respondent in paragraphs IV (A)(2) and IV (A) (4) are proved to be true, Muthu and Meganathan are liable to be named under Section 99(1) of the Act. It should be remembered that Section 99 does not require every person to be named to be added as a party to the election petition. The addition of parties is governed by the 'provisions of Section 82 of the Act. We have already construed the expression in Section 82(b) to mean 'any candidate who is alleged to have committed corrupt practices'. Now if acceptance of bribe is not itself a corrupt practice, the allegation that Muthu and Meganathan accepted bribes would not amount to allegations against a candidate of corrupt practice within the meaning of Section 82(b) and we have already pointed out that Section 100(1)(b) should be confined to persons charged with having given a bribe and should not be extended to a person who received the bribe.

24. We find it a little difficult to accept the contention of Mr. Nambiar, that the Parliament which deliberately removed receipt of a bribe from the definition of corrupt practice, now embodied in Section 123 of the Act, let in receipt of a bribe by a candidate alone under the provisions of Section 99(1) of the Act. What has to be proved under Section 99(1) is that the person has committed a corrupt practice. Section 99(1)(a)(i) requires that a person should have been proved at the trial to have been guilty of a corrupt practice, that is, he should have committed that corrupt practice. If receipt of a bribe is not itself a corrupt practice, there is no question of Muthu and Meganathan themselves having committed a corrupt practice. Their consent to the commission of the corrupt practice by the petitioner or his agent by acceptance of the bribe could still expose, under the terms of Section 99(1)(a)(i), in the circumstances of this case only the petitioner and his agent who alone constituted what was characterized by the Advocate-General as the ' group of givers '. We are unable to accept as a correct proposition of law the contention of Mr. Nambiar, that Muthu and Meganathan, who were candidates and with whose consent corrupt practices were committed by the petitioner or his agent, were themselves candidates against whom the allegations of corrupt practices were made in the election petition within the meaning of Section 82(b).

25. In our opinion the decision of the Tribunal, that failure to implead Muthu and Meganathan did not come within the mischief of Section 82(b) and therefore of Section 90(3) of the Act, is correct. The Tribunal was right in dismissing I.A. No. 1 of 1957. The rule nisi issued in each of the Writ Petitions Nos. 623 and 624 of 1957 will be discharged and the petitions will stand dismissed.

26. W.P. No. 799 of 1957 is directed to question the legality of the order of the Tribunal in rejecting I.A. No. 3 of 1957 preferred by Kandaswami, the election petitioner. In this petition he has prayed that if the Tribunal, should hold that Meganathan and Muthu were necessary parties to be impleaded in the election petition on a proper construction of Section 82(b) of the Act, the petitioner might be permitted to amend the petition by adding these persons as parties thereto. The Tribunal held that if these ' candidates ' were necessary parties the petition for amendment filed after the period of time prescribed by Section 81 of the Act was not maintainable by reason of the express provisions of Section 90(3) of the Act.

27. Mr. Mohan Kumaramangalam, learned Counsel for the petitioner, invited our attention to the decision of the Supreme Court in Jagannath v. Jaswant Singh : [1954]1SCR892 and sought to pursuade us that the law as there laid down still governed the powers of the Tribunal even after the amendments effected by Act XXVII of 1956. It is sufficient to refer to the headnote of the decision of the Supreme Court to appreciate the point decided in it. The headnote in the Supreme Court Reports reads:

(i) that non-compliance with the provisions of Section 82 of the Representation of People Act, 1951 and the omission of a proper party from the list of respondents is not fatal and the Tribunal is entitled to deal with the matter in accordance with the rules of the Code of Civil Procedure which have been made expressly applicable;

(ii) that it is one of the rules of construction that a provision similar to the one in Section 82 is not mandatory unless non-compliance with it is made penal.

28. The basis of this decision is to be found in the provisions contained in Sections 85 and 90(4) of the Representation of People Act, 1951 as it stood before the amendment. Section 85 dealt with the powers of the Election Commission and referred to the stage when an election petition was before it. It enacted that if the provisions of Section 81, 83 or 117 were not complied with, the Election Commission should dismiss the petition. This was followed by a proviso, which we omit as not material for the present purpose. The proper parties to be impleaded in an election petition were specified in Section 82. The Supreme Court, had, therefore, no difficulty in holding that on the terms of Section 85 the Election Commission could not dismiss a petition for non-compliance with the terms of Section 82 for failure to implead the necessary parties. Section 90(4) related to the powers of an Election Tribunal after the petition was referred to it by the Election Commission. This provision read:

Notwithstanding anything contained in Section 85, the Tribunal may dismiss an election petition which does not comply with the provisions of Section 81, 83 or Section 117.

Even before the Election Tribunal the failure to implead a necessary party did not attract the penal consequence of the rejection of the election petition, which the failure to comply with the provisions of Sections 81, 83 and 117 involved. In the context of these provisions when Section 90(2) conferred on the Election Tribunal the powers of a civil Court and directed it to follow the procedure prescribed for the trial of suits under the Code of Civil Procedure, the Supreme Court had no difficulty in holding that the Election Tribunal was vested with the same powers to add parties as under Order 1, Rule 10 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

29. The amendment of the Act in 1956, however, has changed the entire situation, rendering the decision in Jagannath v. Jaswant Singh : [1954]1SCR892 no longer applicable Section 85 as now amended reads:

If the provisions of Section 81 or Section 82 or Section 117 have not been complied with, the Election Commission shall dismiss the petition

So that Section 82 is now brought within the scope of the penal provision.

30. In line with Section 85, section go (3) which has replaced Section 90(4) enacts:

The Tribunal shall dismiss an election petition which does not comply with the provisions of Section 81, Section 82, or Section 117, notwithstanding that it has not been dismissed by the Election Commissioner under Section 85.

As the penal consequence of the rejection of the petition has been statutorily imposed for non-compliance with the provisions of Section 82, it must now be held that the power of the Election Tribunal to invoke the procedure under Order 1, Rule 10 of the Code of Civil Procedure can no longer apply. The order of the Tribunal was therefore right and cannot be interfered with. In view, however, of the Tribunal's finding that failure to implead Muthu and Meganathan did not constitute any contravention of Section 82(b) of the Act, there was no need to implead them as party respondents, and the provisions of Section 90(3) could not, therefore, apply. The rule nisi issued in W.P. No. 799 of 1957 is discharged and the petition is dismissed.

31. There will, however, be no order as to costs in any of the Writ Petitions.


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