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Ramachandra Naidu and ors. Vs. Vengama Naidu and ors. - Court Judgment

LegalCrystal Citation
SubjectFamily
CourtChennai
Decided On
Reported inAIR1938Mad357
AppellantRamachandra Naidu and ors.
RespondentVengama Naidu and ors.
Excerpt:
- - held that a decree which had been satisfied was still capable of execution so long as the satisfaction was not reported to and certified by the court. the only remedy for a judgment-debtor who is nailed upon to pay in execution proceedings, having already paid out of court, is an action for damages, against the decree-holder, but when the decree has been executed by an assignee no action for damages will lie against the assignee, notwithstanding that he has taken the assignment with notice of the fact that the decree has been satisfied. therefore i fail to see how the doctrine of part performance can have any application whatsoever. there was here clearly no fraud......sold his share in 393 acres of the family lands to one krishna iyer, who was defendant 21 in the widow's suit. on 27th november 1888 krishna iyer sold his interest in these properties to vengama naidu and perumal naidu. between 7th december 1888 and 2nd june 1890 vengama naidu and perumal naidu under 13 deeds disposed of their interest in the properties to various people. on 27th september 1908 the widow assigned her decree to the plaintiffs in the suit out of which this appeal arises. as assignees of the decree, the plaintiffs instituted proceedings in execution and obtained an order for the sale of ramarathnam's interest. at the court auction they purchased ramarathnam's interest. on 14th september 1915 the plaintiffs filed a suit in the court of the district munsif of kulitalai for.....
Judgment:

Leach, C.J.

1. In O.S. No. 1 of 1889 of the District Court of Trichinopoly a Hindu widow, one Venkalakshmi Ammal, sued her step-sons, Venkatarama Iyer and Ramarathnam Iyer for maintenance, and on 2nd September 1890 obtained a decree which applied to the maintenance then due and to future maintenance. The maintenance was made a charge on the family properties. The decree was not expressed in precise terms, but it was held in subsequent execution proceedings that the decree did in fact give a charge on the family properties and this question must be regarded as having been finally decided. On 13th November 1888 Ramarathnam sold his share in 393 acres of the family lands to one Krishna Iyer, who was defendant 21 in the widow's suit. On 27th November 1888 Krishna Iyer sold his interest in these properties to Vengama Naidu and Perumal Naidu. Between 7th December 1888 and 2nd June 1890 Vengama Naidu and Perumal Naidu Under 13 deeds disposed of their interest in the properties to various people. On 27th September 1908 the widow assigned her decree to the plaintiffs in the suit out of which this appeal arises. As assignees of the decree, the plaintiffs instituted proceedings in execution and obtained an order for the sale of Ramarathnam's interest. At the Court auction they purchased Ramarathnam's Interest. On 14th September 1915 the plaintiffs filed a suit in the Court of the District Munsif of Kulitalai for partition of the properties and for possession of their half share. The District Munsif's Court had no jurisdiction to try the suit because of its value and the plaint had to foe returned for filing in the Court of the Subordinate Judge. This was done and the suit was numbered as O.S. No. 45 of 1917. There were 101 defendants, of whom 98 were sued as alienees Under transfers executed after 7th December 1888.

2. In 1894 the widow entered into an agreement with Vengama Naidu and Perumal Naidu Under which they were to pay her a sum of Rs. 1400 in satisfaction of tier claim for future maintenance against the properties in their hands. Of the Rs. 1400, a sum of Rs. 1000 had already been paid. The agreement provided that when the balance of Rs. 400 had been received and the widow had realized the amount representing the arrears of maintenance at the date of the agreement, she was to execute a formal release of the charge created by the decree on Ramarathnam's half share in the family properties. The arrears were not realized and consequently the agreement was renewed is 1903 and again in 1906. The original Agreement was not bean put in evidence; but the agreements of 1903 and 1906 have been and are marked as Exs. 18 and 18a Respectively, The agreement of 1903 reads in follows :

If according to what you have executed and given you pay with interest the sum of Rs, 400 which in the balance duo after deducting the amount of Rs. 1000 received from you, I shall, as soon as the whole of the decree amount due upto this Any is realized, cause the plaintiff in the said suit to execute and deliver a memorandum of release in your favour to the effect that the Mobility for the decree of the lands purchased by you from Krishna Iyer has been given up. I shall not attach the said lands and proceed in execution for the amounts due Under the said decree.

3. This document was signed by one P. Ramaswamy Iyer as the agent of the widow. That he had the authority to sign is not in question. The agreement of 1906 is in similar terms, but instead of the wards 'as soon as the whole of the decree amount due up to this day is realized 'we have the words' after the realization of the entire balance of the decree. There can be no doubt that the effect of such of these documents was this: If Vengama Naidu and Perumal Naidu paid the balance of Rs. 400 with interest and the widow was able to realize from other properties the amount due to her as arrears of maintenance at the date of the document she would execute the contemplated release; in the meantime, she would not take steps in execution of the decree against the properties in the possession of Vengama Naidu and Perumal. These agreements were not recorded under the provisions of Order 21, Rule 2, Civil P.C. and therefore cannot be regarded as adjustments of the decree. On 17th September 1908, that is two days before the assignment by the widow of her decree in favour of the present plaintiffs, Vengama Naidu instituted O.S. No. 406 of 1908 in the Court of the District Munsif of kulitalai for a decree for specific performance of the agreement of 1906, the last renewal of the agreement of 1894. On 14th August 1911 the District Munsif dismissed the suit. An appeal followed to the Subordinate Judge of Trichinopoly, who held that the suit was premature and accordingly dismissed the Appeal. A second appeal was then filed in this Court. The widow died during the pendency of the appeal and the present plaintiffs were added as parties. This Court held that the plaintiffs, as assignees of the maintenance decree, were not the legal representatives of the widow and being assignees an action for specific performance did not lie. This judgment was delivered on 12th March 1915.

4. Returning now to the suit out of which this appeal arises, the Subordinate Judge accepted the contention that the doctrine of lis pendens applied to the alienations and therefore regarded them as being subject to the charge in favour of the widow. But he dismissed the suit on the broad ground that there were enough equities with the alienee defendants to override all consequences arising from the operation of the doctrine of lis pendens. This judgment was delivered on 21st August 1922, An appeal was filed against this decision in this Court and it came before Krishnan and Venkatasubba Rao JJ., on 6th and 14th September, and on 1st and 8th October 1926. After the arguments had closed, judgment was reserved and was delivered on 5th November 1926. Venkatasubba Rao J., agreed that the doctrine of lis pendens did apply and accepted the contention that the agreement of 1894 and its subsequent renewals did not operate to bar the execution of the widow's decree. The learned Judge however laid great stress on the fact that the plaintiffs had taken the assignment of the decree with full knowledge of the agreement, and considered that la these circumstances it was a fraud on the alienees to enforce the maintenance decree. He also held that the doctrine of part performance applied and on this basis refused the plaintiffs the reliefs they sought, but instead granted them a money decree for Rs. 400 with interest from 1894. Krishnan J, considered that the suit could be maintained as framed and relied on the decision of this Court in Krishna lyer v. Savurlmuthu Pilial (1919) 6 A.I.R. Mad 424 In that sane a Full Bench consisting of Abdur Rahim, Oldfield and Seshagiri Ayyar JJ. held that a decree which had been satisfied was still capable of execution so long as the satisfaction was not reported to and certified by the Court. The only remedy for a judgment-debtor who is nailed upon to pay in execution proceedings, having already paid out of Court, is an action for damages, against the decree-holder, but when the decree has been executed by an assignee no action for damages will lie against the assignee, notwithstanding that he has taken the assignment with notice of the fact that the decree has been satisfied. Krishnan J. also accepted the application of the doctrine of lis pendens.

5. It falls to be observed that the doctrine of part performance on which Venkatasubba Rao J. relied was not raised in the pleadings, was not made the subject of an issue and was not raised in the course of the arguments. Krishnan J. added a note to Ms judgment, after he had perused that of Venkatasubba Rao J. and that pointed out that this was an entirely new question which was not raised by the parties and not argued at the bar. While it is open to the Court to decide a case on any rule of law which it considers applies it is not entitled to decide a case on a point taken by itself without giving the parties to the appeal an opportunity of meeting it. Order 41, Rule 2 Civil P.C. says that the appellant shall not, except by leave of the Court, urge or be heard in support of any ground of objection not act forth in the memorandum of appeal, but the Appellate Court in deciding the appeal, shall not be confined to the ground of objection set forth in the memorandum of appeal or taken by leave of the Court Under the Rule. There is however this important proviso. The Court shall not rest its decision on any other ground unless the party who may be affected thereby has had a sufficient opportunity of contesting the case on that ground. With great respect, I consider that before Venkatasubba Rao J. based his decision on the doctrine of part performance ha should have given the plaintiff's advocate an opportunity of stating his views on the question. As the doctrine of part performance was relied on by Venkatasubba Rao J. and has been made the subject of argument before us I will express my views on the question. The widow had obtained a decree for maintenance and the amount she was entitled to receive by way of maintenance was made a charge on the family properties. If her step sons did not pay what was due as maintenance she was entitled to proceed against those properties, notwithstanding that they had passed or that some of them had passed into other hands. It was open to her to agree with the alienees to release the properties in their hands from the charge, but until there was a release by her, valid in law, the properties remained charged. In this case all that had happened was that an agreement was entered into by the widow with the original alienees Under which she Undertook to release the properties with which they were concerned on certain events happening. Until they happened and they never did happen the properties remained charged. The fact that the widow received Rs. 1000 out of the Rs. 1400 did not entitle Vengama Naidu and Perumal, Naidu to a release. Therefore I fail to see how the doctrine of part performance can have any application whatsoever. Vankatasubba Rao J. also considered that the present action constituted a fraud on the alienees. There was here clearly no fraud. The plaintiffs took with notice of the agreement of 1894, but that did not disentitle them to execute the decree, They were at full liberty to do so.

6. I have already mentioned that it was accepted by the trial Court and by Krishnan and Venkataaubba Rao JJ. on appeal that the doctrine of lis pendens applied. It was suggested at one stage in the arguments before us that this view was wrong but when it was pointed out to the learned advocate for the respondent that the question had been raised in the execution proceedings to which the present parties or their representatives were parties and there decided, he very properly did not press the point. It is clear that it was raised on the execution proceedings and there finally decided, and consequently the argument is not open to the defendants in this Court. The same remarks apply to a suggestion which has been made that the agreement of 1894 and its subsequent renewals operated to prevent the widow, proceeding in execution against the properties in the possession of the alienees. This question was also raised in the execution proceedings and there also decided. Therefore the position is this: The plaintiffs are the assigness in law of the widow's decree and they were entitled to execute it against the family properties, notwithstanding that they had passed into the hands of the defendants. They did execute the decree and in the execution proceedings they bought in the half share of Ramarathnam. Consequently they now possess Ramarathnam's half interest in the family estate. It has been suggested that Section 91 of the Trusts Act applies, but it is clear that it does not. The decision in the suit for specific performance entirely disposes of this argument.

7. The appeal will be allowed and the case remanded to the trial Court for disposal on the merits. The appellant will be entitled to costs here and before the Division Bench. He will also be entitled to a refund of the court-fee paid on the appeal as on the Letters Patent appeal. A regrettable feature of this case is the tremendous delay which has taken plane. The suit was filed as long ago as 1915 and an appeal lay direct to this Court, As I have pointed out, the learned trial Judge delivered judgment on 21st August 1922. An appeal was filed in that year to this Court and it came before Krinhnan and Venkatasubba Rao JJ. in September and October 1926. The learned Judge disagreed, and in accordance with the practice of this Court which then ruled it was necessary that the appeal should he heard by a Full Bench. It has taken 11 years for this to happen. The appeal has been in this Court from 1922 until now a total period of 15 years. But for the fact that these dates appear on the record I should not have believed it possible that there could be such delay. The fact that the number of parties is large and that some of them died and their legal1 representatives have had to be brought on the record can be no justification for this great delay. The delay is so great that it would appear to amount to a scandals and I have directed that a full inquiry be made into the matter,

Varadachariar, J.

8. I agree.

Hockett, J.

9. I agree.


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