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Arunachala Aiyar and ors. Vs. T. Ramasami Aiyar and ors. - Court Judgment

LegalCrystal Citation
CourtChennai
Decided On
Judge
Reported in25Ind.Cas.618
AppellantArunachala Aiyar and ors.
RespondentT. Ramasami Aiyar and ors.
Cases ReferredBubbaraya Reddiar v. Rajagopala Reddiar
Excerpt:
transfer of property act (iv of 1882), section 55(2) - limitation act (ix of 1908), schedule i, articles 62, 97, 116--breach of covenant for title--suit for compensation. - .....by limitation, the period being three years under article 62 or 97 of the limitation act. the learned district judge relied on kowuri basivireddy v. tallapaparagada nagamma 8 ind. cas. 1087 : 35 m. 39 : (1910) m.w.n. 827 : 9 m.l.t. 467 in support of his decision.2. it is contended before us that as the sale-deed in this case was executed in 1904 long after the transfer of property act came into force, the proper article to be applied in respect of a suit claiming compensation for breach of an express or implied covenant of title and quiet enjoyment is article 116 which allows a period of six years. we think that this contention must be upheld. it has been decided in a series of cases beginning in 1889 see the two cases reported in kasturi naicken v. venhatasubba mudaly 1 m.l.j. 162.....
Judgment:

1. The learned District Judge has reversed the decision of the District Munsif who granted a decree for money against the 1st defendant personally. The District Judge held that the suit of the plaintiff (the vendee) so far as it prayed for recovery of compensation from the 1st defendant (the vendor) for the breach of the covenants for title and possession, was barred by limitation, the period being three years under Article 62 or 97 of the Limitation Act. The learned District Judge relied on Kowuri Basivireddy v. Tallapaparagada Nagamma 8 Ind. Cas. 1087 : 35 M. 39 : (1910) M.W.N. 827 : 9 M.L.T. 467 in support of his decision.

2. It is contended before us that as the sale-deed in this case was executed in 1904 long after the Transfer of Property Act came into force, the proper Article to be applied in respect of a suit claiming compensation for breach of an express or implied covenant of title and quiet enjoyment is Article 116 which allows a period of six years. We think that this contention must be upheld. It has been decided in a series of cases beginning in 1889 see the two cases reported in Kasturi Naicken v. Venhatasubba Mudaly 1 M.L.J. 162 and Narayana Reddi v. Peda Rama Reddi 1 M.L.J. 479 that in all registered conveyances executed after the Transfer of Property Act came into force, a covenant for title is implied by Section 55, Clause 2, of that Act,, that the registered conveyance should be read as if it expressly embodied that covenant and that the breach of that covenant is the breach of a contract in writing registered within the meaning of Article 116.

3. We need refer only to a few of the later cases, namely, those in Chidambaram Pillai v. Sivathasamy Thever 15 M.L.T. 396; Zemindar of Vizianagaram v. Behara Suryanarayana Patrulu 25 MA. 587 : 12 M.L.J. 249; Tavala Nageswara How v. Sripalli Sambasiva Row 11 Ind. Cas. 337 : (1911) 1 M.W.N. 361; Krishnan Nambiar v. Kannan 21 M. 8 and Unichaman v. Ahmed Kutti Kayi 21 MA. 242 : 8 M.L.J. 81. It must, however, be admitted that the case in Kowuri Basivireddy v. Tallapaparagada Nagamma 8 Ind. Cas. 1087 : 35 Ma. 39 : (1910) M.W.N. 827 : 9 M.L.T. 467 seems to throw some doubt on the decision in Krishnan Nambiar v. Kannan 21 M. 8, which follows the current of the earlier decisions. The reasoning in Kowuri Basivireddy v. Tallapaparagada Nagamma 8 Ind. Cas. 1087 : 35 M. 39 : (1910) M.W.N. 827 : 9 M.L.T. 467 is not quite clear and one of the two learned Judges who took part in it, was also a party to the later decision which expressly followed the current of the earlier decisions see the subsequent case reported in Tavala Nageswara Raw v. Sripalli Sambasiva Row 11 Ind. Cas. 337 : (1911) 1 M.W.N. 361 distinguishing the case in Kowuri Basivireddy v. Tallapaparagada Nagamma 8 Ind. Cas. 1087 : 35 Ma. 39 : (1910) M.W.N. 827 : 9 M.L.T. 467 as not in point'. In Kowuri Basivireddy v. Tallapaparagada Nagamma 8 Ind. Cas. 1087 : 35 M. 39 : (1910) M.W.N. 827 : 9 M.L.T. 467, the correctness of the decision in Krishnan Nambiar v. Kannan 21 M. 8 was doubted on the strength of the Privy Council ruling in Hanuman Kamat v. Hanuman Mandur 19 C. 123 : 18 I.A. 158, wherein their Lordships held that in the case of a conveyance executed in 1879 (before the Transfer of Property Act came into force) a suit for compensation for failure of consideration (that is, for the recovery of the purchase-money paid to the vendor) through the failure of the vendee to obtain possession of the land sold fell under Article 97 (3 years' rule) and that the date of the cause of action was the date of the obstruction by the vendor's co-parceners. Their Lordships had no occasion to consider the effect of Section 55, Clause (2), of the Transfer of Property Act on a registered conveyance executed after the date of that Act. That case is, therefore, not an authority for the proposition that to a suit brought on the covenant added by the Statute Law to all registered conveyances executed after the Transfer of Property Act came into force, Article 116 did not apply but only Article 62 or 97. In Unichaman v. Ahmed Kutti Kayi 21 M. 242 : 8 M.L.J. 81 a similar argument was addressed to a Bench of this Court, namely, that Article 97 applied to such a suit, because the Bombay High Court held that view in Sawaba Khandapa v. Abaji Jotirav 11 B. 475. But as a Division Bench of this Court point out in Unichaman v. Ahmed Kutti Kayi 21 M. 242 : 8 M.L.J. 81, the Transfer of Property Act was not in force in Bombay (sic) that decision in Sawaba Khandapa v. (sic) Jotirav 11 B. 475 was given. This distine (sic) seems not to have been in the minds of (sic) learned Judges who decided Kowuri (sic)ireddy v. Tallpaparagada Nagamma 8 Ind. Cas. 1087 : 35 M. 39 : (1910) M.W.N. 827 : 9 M.L.T. 467. (sic)might add that Benson, J., who took part (sic)Kowuri Bisivireddy v. Tallpaparagada Nagamma 8 Ind. Cas. 1087 : 35 M. 39 : (1910) M.W.N. 827 : 9 M.L.T. 467, was also a party to the prior (sic)Unichaman v. Ahmed Kutti Kayi 21 M. 242 : 8 M.L.J. 81. Next it was contended that Bakewell, J., doubted the correctness of Krishnan Nambiar v. Kannan 21 M. 8 in his judgment in Ramanatha Aiyar v. Ozhaloor Pathiriserri Raman Nambudripad 21 Ind. Cas. 740 : 14 M.L.T. 524 : 1 L.W. 110 : (1913) M.W.N. 1029. In the first place, the observation is obiter. In the second place, (with the greatest respect) we find difficulty in following the observation of the learned Judge that the Transfer of Property Act 'may be construed as having annexed the statutory agreement' (that is, the contract embodying the covenant for title and other covenants) to the contract of sale and not to the deed of conveyance itself. As said in Dart's Vendors and Purchasers, Volume I, page 567, these covenants are by the English Conveyancing Act, 1881, Section 7, implied in every conveyance' and we do not see why they should be held under the Transfer of Property Act to be attached only to the contract of sale and not to the conveyance. The other learned Judge Miller, J., was prepared to follow Krishnan Nambiar v. Kannan 21 M. 8. The respondents' Vakil's argument that a covenant for title cannot be implied where the buyer knows the defect of title, is opposed to the, recent decision by Seshagiri Aiyar, J., in Bubbaraya Reddiar v. Rajagopala Reddiar 23 Ind. Cas. 570 : 14 M.L.T. 240 : (1914) M.W.N. 376, with which decision we agree.

4. The learned District Judge has decided the case only on the preliminary ground of limitation raised in the 9th ground of the appeal memorandum presented to the District Court. We are unable to agree with him in that finding and if Article 116 applies, as we hold it to apply, it is not denied that the suit is not barred. The question whether plaintiff can be given a decree for recovery of the money due under the original hypothecation bond has also not been decided (see Order XLI, Rule 33, of the Civil Procedure Code and the wide powers of the Appellate Court).

5. We, therefore, reverse the District Judge's decision and remand the case for the disposal of the appeal preferred to the District Court on the other points arising in the case. Costs will abide the result.


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